Benign focal ischemic preconditioning induces neuronal Hsp70 and prolonged astrogliosis with expression of Hsp27
ABSTRACT We have established a focal preconditioning (PC) paradigm that produces significant and prolonged ischemic tolerance (IT) of the brain to subsequent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). PC using 10 min of MCAO induces brain tolerance at 1-7 days of reperfusion that requires active protein synthesis. The protective protein(s) involved are unknown. In these studies the increased transcription and translation of the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and the 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27), and astrogliosis/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were determined by Northern analysis and immunohistochemistry following PC. Cellular localization of proteins was determined by double labeling. PC produced no brain injury but did increase Hsp70 mRNA transiently at 6 h and increased Hsp27 mRNA later at 24 h for at least 5 days. Protein expression induced by PC exhibited a similar profile. Hsp70 protein was primarily expressed in neurons from 1 to 5 days post-PC throughout the PC cortex. Hsp27 protein expression was initiated later for a much longer period of time. A remarkable astroglyosis was verified with increased astrocytic Hsp27 from 1 to 7 days after PC. Gliosis with increased Hsp27 in the PC cortex was still present but reduced 4 weeks after PC. Therefore, PC that results in brain tolerance/neuroprotection increases neuronal Hsp70 in the PC cortex and activated astrocytic Hsp27 in the PC cortex in a temporal fashion associated with developing IT. The short duration of benign ischemia (PC) that produces IT produces a robust, long-lived cellular and protein synthetic response that extends throughout the entire cortex (i.e. well beyond the MCA perfusion territory). The resulting IT is associated with changes in astrocyte-activation that might provide increased support and protection from injury. Although both Hsp70 and Hsp27 may participate in the neuroprotection/brain tolerance induced by PC, the temporal expression patterns of these proteins indicate that they are not solely responsible for the tolerance to brain injury.
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ABSTRACT: The heat shock protein (Hsp) family is an evolutionarily conserved system that is charged with preventing unfolded or misfolded proteins in the cell from aggregating. In Alzheimer's disease, extracellular accumulation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and intracellular aggregation of the microtubule associated protein tau may result from mechanisms involving chaperone proteins like the Hsps. Due to the ability of Hsps to regulate aberrantly accumulating proteins like Aβ and tau, therapeutic strategies are emerging that target this family of chaperones to modulate their pathobiology. This article focuses on the use of Hsp-based therapeutics for treating primary and secondary tauopathies like Alzheimer's disease. It will particularly focus on the pharmacological targeting of the Hsp70/90 system and the value of manipulating Hsp27 for treating Alzheimer's disease.DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 12/2011; 9(4):623-31. DOI:10.2174/157015911798376226 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning is a phenomenon in which low-level stressful stimuli upregulate endogenous defensive programs, resulting in subsequent resistance to otherwise lethal injuries. We previously observed that signal transduction systems typically associated with neurodegeneration such as caspase activation are requisite events for the expression of tolerance and induction of HSP70. In this work, we sought to determine the extent and duration of oxidative and energetic dysfunction as well as the role of effector kinases on metabolic function in preconditioned cells. Using an in vitro neuronal culture model, we observed a robust increase in Raf and p66(Shc) activation within 1 h of preconditioning. Total ATP content decreased by 25% 3 h after preconditioning but returned to baseline by 24 h. Use of a free radical spin trap or p66(shc) inhibitor increased ATP content whereas a Raf inhibitor had no effect. Phosphorylated p66(shc) rapidly relocalized to the mitochondria and in the absence of activated p66(shc), autophagic processing increased. The constitutively expressed chaperone HSC70 relocalized to autophagosomes. Preconditioned cells experience significant total oxidative stress measured by F(2)-isoprostanes and neuronal stress evaluated by F(4)-neuroprostane measurement. Neuroprostane levels were enhanced in the presence of Shc inhibitors. Finally, we found that inhibiting either p66(shc) or Raf blocked neuroprotection afforded by preconditioning as well as upregulation of HSP70, suggesting both kinases are critical for preconditioning but function in fundamentally different ways. This is the first work to demonstrate the essential role of p66(shc) in mediating requisite mitochondrial and energetic compensation after preconditioning and suggests a mechanism by which protein and organelle damage mediated by ROS can increase HSP70.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 04/2010; 30(15):5242-52. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6366-09.2010 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Freshwater turtles survive prolonged anoxia and reoxygenation without overt brain damage by well-described physiological processes, but little work has been done to investigate the molecular changes associated with anoxic survival. We examined stress proteins and apoptotic regulators in the turtle during early (1 h) and long-term anoxia (4, 24 h) and reoxygenation. Western blot analyses showed changes within the first hour of anoxia; multiple stress proteins (Hsp72, Grp94, Hsp60, Hsp27, and HO-1) increased while apoptotic regulators (Bcl-2 and Bax) decreased. Levels of the ER stress protein Grp78 were unchanged. Stress proteins remained elevated in long-term anoxia while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was unaltered. No changes in cleaved caspase 3 levels were observed during anoxia while apoptosis inducing factor increased significantly. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the anoxic translocation of Bax from the cytosol to mitochondria, nor movement of apoptosis inducing factor between the mitochondria and nucleus. Reoxygenation did not lead to further increases in stress proteins or apoptotic regulators except for HO-1. The apparent protection against cell damage was corroborated with immunohistochemistry, which indicated no overt damage in the turtle brain subjected to anoxia and reoxygenation. The results suggest that molecular adaptations enhance pro-survival mechanisms and suppress apoptotic pathways to confer anoxia tolerance in freshwater turtles.Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2009; 109(5):1413-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06068.x · 4.24 Impact Factor