Verapamil stimulates glutathione transport by the 190-kDa multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1).
ABSTRACT Multidrug resistance in tumor cells is often associated with reduced drug accumulation resulting from increased expression of the 190-kDa multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) or the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein. However, unlike P-glycoprotein, MRP1 is a primary active transporter of many conjugated organic anions, including the cysteinyl leukotriene LTC(4). Moreover, agents such as verapamil that reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance are often poorly, or not at all, effective in MRP1-overexpressing cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of verapamil on MRP1-mediated transport processes. We found that verapamil inhibited LTC(4) transport into inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from MRP1-transfected cells in a competitive manner, but only in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH) or its nonreducing S-methyl derivative. In the presence of 1 mM GSH, the apparent K(i) for verapamil was 1.2 microM, and in the presence of 100 microM verapamil, the apparent K(i) for GSH was 77 microM. Verapamil itself was not transported by MRP1 in either intact cells or membrane vesicles. However, verapamil strongly stimulated MRP1-mediated GSH uptake by membrane vesicles in a concentration-dependent and osmotically sensitive manner that was inhibitable by MRP1-specific monoclonal antibodies. In the presence of 100 microM verapamil, the apparent K(m) and V(max) for GSH uptake were 83 microM and 55 pmol mg(-1) min(-1), respectively. It is proposed that the variable ability of verapamil to modulate MRP1-mediated resistance in different cell lines may be more closely linked to its effect on the GSH status of the cells than on its ability to inhibit the MRP1 transporter itself.
Article: Modulation of GSH levels in ABCC1 expressing tumor cells triggers apoptosis through oxidative stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The over-expression of ABCC1 transmembrane protein has been shown to cause multidrug resistance in tumor cell lines. ABCC1 is a member of the ABC transmembrane proteins that function as efflux pumps with diverse substrate specificity. Several endogenous cell metabolites, including the leukotriene C4 (LTC(4)) and glutathione (GSH) are substrates for ABCC1 protein. ABCC1 expression in certain tumor cells was demonstrated to confer hypersensitivity to glutathione modulating agents. In this report we have investigated the mechanism of collateral sensitivity seen in tumor cells over-expressing ABCC1 protein. The results of this study show that ABCC1 expression in tumor cells correlates with their hypersensitivity to various glutathione modulating agents, as demonstrated in H69AR-drug selected and HeLa/ABCC1-transfectant cells. This effect was triggered either through inhibition of GSH synthesis with BSO or by increasing ABCC1-mediated GSH transport with verapamil or apigenin. In addition, our results show that the hypersensitivity of ABCC1-expressing cells to BSO, verapamil or apigenin was preceded by an increase in reactive oxygen species (or ROS). A decrease in GSH level is also observed prior the increase in ROS. In addition, we show that hypersensitivity to the BSO, verapamil or apigenin leads to tumor cell death by apoptosis. Together, the results of this study demonstrate that ABCC1 potentiates oxidative stress in tumor cells through reductions in cellular GSH levels.Biochemical Pharmacology 07/2007; 73(11):1727-37. · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experiments with multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) showed 10-years ago that transport of vincristine (VCR) by MRP1 could be stimulated by GSH, and transport of GSH by VCR. Since then many examples of stimulated transport have been reported for MRP1, 2, 3, 4 and 8. We discuss here three models to explain stimulated transport. We favour a model in which a large promiscuous binding site can bind more than one ligand, allowing cooperative/competitive interactions between ligands within the binding site. We conclude that there is no unambiguous proof for co-transport of two different ligands by MRPs, but that cross-stimulated transport can explain the published data.FEBS Letters 03/2006; 580(4):1085-93. · 3.54 Impact Factor
Article: Fluorescent modified phosphatidylcholine floppase activity of reconstituted multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) may function as a floppase in human red blood cells to translocate phosphatidylserine and/or phosphatidylcholine from inner membrane leaflet to outer leaflet. Here we report that the purified and reconstituted MRP1 protein into asolectin proteoliposomes is mainly in an inside-out configuration and possesses the ability to flop a fluorescent labeled phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) from outer leaflet (protoplasmic) to inner leaflet (extracytoplasmic). The reconstituted MRP1 protein retains endogenous ATPase activity. ATP hydrolysis is required for the flopping since removal of ATP and/or Mg2+ inhibits the translocation of NBD-PC. Further evidence to support this conclusion is that the translocation of NBD-PC is inhibited by vanadate, which traps ATP hydrolysis product ADP in the nucleotide binding domains. In addition, the translocation of NBD-PC by proteoliposomes containing MRP1 protein is in a glutathione-dependent manner, similar to the process of translocating anticancer drugs such as daunorubicin. verapamil, vincristine, vinblastine, doxorubicin and oxidized glutathione partially inhibited the translocation of NBD-PC, whereas MK 571, an inhibitor of MRP1 protein, inhibited the translocation almost completely. Taken together, the purified and reconstituted MRP1 protein possesses the ability to flop NBD-PC from outer to inner leaflet of the proteoliposomes.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2004; 1660(1-2):155-63. · 4.66 Impact Factor