Biology of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor.
ABSTRACT The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene was first identified as the gene mutated in an inherited syndrome of colon cancer predisposition known as familial adenomatous polyposis coli (FAP). Mutation of APC is also found in 80% of all colorectal adenomas and carcinomas and is one of the earliest mutations in colon cancer progression. Similar to other tumor suppressor genes, both APC alleles are inactivated by mutation in colon tumors, resulting in the loss of full-length protein in tumor cells. The functional significance of altering APC is the dysregulation of several physiologic processes that govern colonic epithelial cell homeostasis, which include cell cycle progression, migration, differentiation, and apoptosis. Roles for APC in some of these processes are in large part attributable to its ability to regulate cytosolic levels of the signaling molecule beta-catenin and to affect the transcriptional profile in cells. This article summarizes numerous genetic, biochemical, and cell biologic studies on the mechanisms of APC-mediated tumor suppression. Mouse models of FAP, in which the APC gene has been genetically inactivated, have been particularly useful in testing therapeutic and chemopreventive strategies. These data have significant implications for colorectal cancer treatment approaches as well as for understanding other disease genes and cancers of other tissue types.
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a collection of events that allows the conversion of adherent epithelial cells, tightly bound to each other within an organized tissue, into independent fibroblastic cells possessing migratory properties and the ability to invade the extracellular matrix. EMT contributes to the complex architecture of the embryo by permitting the progression of embryogenesis from a simple single-cell layer epithelium to a complex three-dimensional organism composed of both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. However, in most tissues EMT is a developmentally restricted process and fully differentiated epithelia typically maintain their epithelial phenotype. Recently, elements of EMT, specially the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers, have been observed in pathological states, including epithelial cancers. Increasing evidence has confirmed its presence in human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis. In general, chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the causes of many human cancers including colorectal cancer(CRC). Accordingly, epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that patients affected by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, have an increased risk of developing CRC. A large body of evidence supports roles for the SMAD/STAT3 signaling pathway, the NF-kB pathway, the Ras-mitogen- activated protein kinase/Snail/Slug and microRNAs in the development of colorectal cancers via epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition. Thus, EMT appears to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, and analysis refered to it can yield novel targets for therapy.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 05/2013; 14(5):2689-2698. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.5.2689 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose. DLC-1 is a tumor suppressor gene frequently silenced in human cancers. However, the pathogenicity of DLC-1 epigenetic silencing in the mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma transformation process of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been studied. Methods. Promoter methylation status of DLC-1 was evaluated in 4 human CRC cell lines, 48 normal mucosa, 57 adenomas, and 80 CRC tissues with methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA), while the mRNA expression was examined by qPCR. HRMA was utilized to detect the KRAS codon 12, 13 and BRAF V600Emutations. Results. Partial (1%-10%) and extensive (10%-100%) DLC-1 promoter methylations were observed in 10% and 0% of normal mucosa, 46% and 14% of adenomas, and 60% and 36% of CRCs, respectively. The promoter methylation of DLC-1 was related with the reduction of gene expression and the advanced Duke's stages (Stage C and D). DLC-1 promoter methylation and KRAS mutations are common concurrent pathological alternations. Conclusions. Epigenetic alternation plays a key role in the transcriptional silencing of DLC-1. It is also an independent risk factor related to the carcinogenesis of colorectal tumors and spans over its pathogenesis process. Therefore, DLC-1 promoter methylation quantitation may have a promising significance in the evaluation and management of CRC patients.01/2013; 2013:181384. DOI:10.1155/2013/181384
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ABSTRACT: . Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients have a germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli () gene. The APC protein interacts with beta-catenin, resulting in the activation of the Wnt signalling pathway. This results in alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis. We investigated the expression of beta-catenin and related proliferation and apoptotic factors in FAP patients, exploring the expression along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. . The expression of beta-catenin, p53, bcl-2, cyclin-D1, caspase-3, CD10, and Ki-67 proteins was studied by immunohistochemistry in samples of colonic nonneoplastic mucosa ( = 71), adenomas ( = 152), and adenocarcinomas ( = 19) from each of the16 FAP patients. . The expression of beta-catenin, caspase-3, cyclin-D1, and Ki-67 was increased in both adenomas and carcinomas in FAP patients, compared with normal mucosa. p53 and CD10 expression was only slightly increased in adenomas, but more frequently expressed in carcinomas. Bcl-2 expression was increased in adenomas, but decreased in carcinomas. . This is the first study investigating collectively the expression of these molecules together in nonneoplastic mucosa, adenomas, and carcinomas from FAP patients. We find that beta-catenin and related proliferative and apoptotic factors (cyclin-D1, bcl-2, caspase-3, and Ki-67) are expressed early in the sequence, in adenomas. However, p53 and CD10 are often expressed later in the sequence, in carcinomas.Gastroenterology Research and Practice 01/2013; 2013:107534. DOI:10.1155/2013/107534 · 1.50 Impact Factor