Reduced olfactory bulb volume in patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT The authors' goal in this study was to compare the size of olfactory bulbs of patients with schizophrenia and those of healthy subjects.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans of olfactory bulbs were obtained from 26 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. A reliable region of interest procedure was used to measure olfactory bulb volume.
Patients exhibited 23% smaller bilateral bulb volume than comparison subjects, independent of acute clinical, demographic, or treatment measures. Bulb volume correlated with odor detection sensitivity in healthy subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibit structural olfactory deficits as well as functional olfactory deficits. The olfactory system may be a model system in which to study the neurobiology of the disorder.
Article: Visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis of diagnostic image quality for high resolution 3 Tesla MRI volumetry of the olfactory bulb.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for olfactory bulb volumetry, comparing image quality obtained using different sequences on the basis of physical characteristics in combination with observer performance. Twenty-two healthy volunteers (11 men, 11 women; mean age, 25 years) underwent 3-T MRI of the frontal skull base in this prospective study. Imaging was performed using a constructive interference in steady state (CISS) three-dimensional Fourier transformation sequence, a three-dimensional T2-weighted (3D-T2w) sequence, and a two-dimensional T2-weighted (2D-T2w) sequence. The relative performance of sequences was assessed using visual grading characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ statistics. For evaluation of physical image quality characteristics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated and compared using Wilcoxon's test. SNR and CNR measurements were correlated with visual grading results. Visual grading characteristic analysis showed significantly better image quality ratings for the CISS sequence compared to the 3D-T2w and 2D-T2w sequence, and the 2D-T2w sequence performed significantly better compared to the 3D-T2w sequence (P < .001). Interobserver agreement was substantial (κ = 0.66-0.73). Wilcoxon's test revealed significantly higher SNR and CNR values for the 2D-T2w sequence compared to the 3D-T2w and CISS sequences, and SNR and CNR values for the 3D-T2w sequence were significantly higher compared to those for the CISS sequence (P < .001 for each). Significant correlation between SNR and CNR and visual grading was found for the 3D-T2w sequence (SNR: ρ = 0.510, P = .015; CNR: ρ = 0.546, P = .009). High-resolution 3-T MRI resulted in excellent values for SNR and CNR, suggesting the appropriateness of the sequences for olfactory bulb MRI volumetry. Visual grading characteristic analysis revealed the CISS sequence to be the most suitable for olfactory bulb volumetry.Academic radiology 03/2011; 18(5):634-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Olfactory dysfunction in MS patients is reported in the literature. MRI of the olfactory bulb (OB) is discussed as a promising new testing method for measuring olfactory function (OF). Aim of this study was to explore reasons for and optimize the detection of olfactory dysfunction in MS patients with MRI. OB and olfactory brain volume was assessed within 34 MS patients by manual segmentation. Olfactory function was tested using the Threshold-Discrimination-Identification-Test (TDI), gustatory function was tested using Taste Strips (TST). 41% of the MS patients displayed olfactory dysfunction (8% of the control group), 16% displayed gustatory dysfunction (5% of the control group). There was a correlation between the OB volume and the number and volume of MS lesions in the olfactory brain. Olfactory brain volume correlated with the volume of lesions in the olfactory brain and the EDSS score. The TST score correlated with the number and volume of lesions in the olfactory brain. The correlation between a higher number and volume of MS lesions with a decreased OB and olfactory brain volume could help to explain olfactory dysfunction.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19702. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Reproducibility and repeatability of volumetric measurements for olfactory bulb volumetry: which method is appropriate? An update using 3 Tesla MRI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare different sequences for olfactory bulb volumetry using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, evaluating reproducibility, repeatability, and systematic biases. Twenty-two volunteers underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal skull base in this prospective study. Imaging included constructive interference in steady state (CISS), T2-weighted (T2w) three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions, and T2w two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin-echo sequences. Two observers independently performed two olfactory bulb volumetric studies per bulb and sequence. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. For the evaluation of reproducibility, concordance correlation coefficients were determined, and for repeatability and systematic biases, Bland-Altman plots were analyzed. Intraclass correlation coefficient analysis of the specialized observer yielded almost perfect results for intraobserver reliability (0.94, 0.85, and 0.93 for the CISS, T2w 3D, and T2w 2D sequences, respectively). For the less experienced observer, the results were 0.86 0.78, and 0.74 for the CISS, T2w 3D, and T2w 2D sequences, respectively. Interobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement for all sequences (0.92, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively). The CISS sequence yielded the highest concordance correlation coefficient (0.84), precision (0.85), and accuracy (0.99). Bland-Altman plot analyses revealed the lowest repeatability coefficients for the T2w 2D sequence. Volumetric measurements of T2w 2D imaging showed systematically lower volumetric results compared to the CISS sequence (-22.7%) and the T2w 3D sequence (-8.3%). Comparison of three imaging sequences for olfactory bulb volumetry yielded the best values for the CISS sequence in terms of intraobserver and interobserver reliability, reproducibility, accuracy, and precision. Given that even less experienced observers achieve almost perfect results, the CISS sequence is recommended for olfactory bulb volumetry.Academic radiology 07/2011; 18(7):842-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor