Randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge
ABSTRACT Recently enacted federal legislation mandates insurance coverage of at least 48 hours of postpartum hospitalization, but most mothers and newborns in the United States will continue to go home before the third postpartum day. National guidelines recommend a follow-up visit on the third or fourth postpartum day, but scant evidence exists about whether home or clinic visits are more effective.
We enrolled 1163 medically and socially low-risk mother-newborn pairs with uncomplicated delivery and randomly assigned them to receive home visits by nurses or pediatric clinic visits by nurse practitioners or physicians on the third or fourth postpartum day. In contrast with the 20-minute pediatric clinic visits, the home visits were longer (median: 70 minutes), included preventive counseling about the home environment, and included a physical examination of the mother. Clinical utilization and costs were studied using computerized databases. Breastfeeding continuation, maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal satisfaction were assessed by means of telephone interviews at 2 weeks' postpartum.
Comparing the 580 pairs in the home visit group and the 583 pairs in the pediatric clinic visit group, no significant differences occurred in clinical outcomes as measured by maternal or newborn rehospitalization within 10 days postpartum, maternal or newborn urgent clinic visits within 10 days postpartum, or breastfeeding discontinuation or maternal depressive symptoms at the 2-week interview. The same was true for a combined clinical outcome measure indicating whether a mother-newborn pair had any of the above outcomes. In contrast, higher proportions of mothers in the home visit group rated as excellent or very good the preventive advice delivered (80% vs 44%), the provider's skills and abilities (87% vs 63%), the newborn's posthospital care (87% vs 59%), and their own posthospital care (75% vs 47%). On average, a home visit cost $255 and a pediatric clinic visit cost $120.
For low-risk mothers and newborns in this integrated health maintenance organization, home visits compared with pediatric clinic visits on the third or fourth postpartum hospital day were more costly, but were associated with equivalent clinical outcomes and markedly higher maternal satisfaction. This study had limited power to identify group differences in rehospitalization, and may not be generalizable to higher-risk populations without comparable access to integrated hospital and outpatient care.
SourceAvailable from: Wendy Brodribb[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background In Australia, maternity care is available through universal coverage and a parallel, competitive private health insurance system. Differences between sectors in antenatal and intrapartum care and associated outcomes are well documented but few studies have investigated differences in postpartum care following hospital discharge and their impact on maternal satisfaction and confidence.Methods Women who birthed in Queensland, Australia from February to May 2010 were mailed a self-report survey 4 months postpartum. Regression analysis was used to determine associations between sector of birth and postpartum care, and whether postpartum care experiences explained sector differences in postpartum well-being (satisfaction, parenting confidence and feeling depressed).ResultsWomen who birthed in the public sector had higher odds of health professional contact in the first 10 days post-discharge and satisfaction with the amount of postpartum care. After adjusting for demographic and postpartum contact variables, sector of birth no longer had an impact on satisfaction (AOR 0.95, 99% CI 0.78-1.31), but any form of health professional contact did. Women who had a care provider¿s 24 hour contact details had higher odds of being satisfied (AOR 3.64, 95% CI 3.00-4.42) and confident (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.08- 1.65).Conclusion Women who birthed in the public sector appeared more satisfied because they had higher odds of receiving contact from a health professional within 10 days post-discharge. All women should have an opportunity to speak to and/or see a doctor, midwife or nurse in the first 10 days at home, and the details of a person they can contact 24 hours a day.BMC Health Services Research 01/2015; 15(1):14. DOI:10.1186/s12913-015-0689-3 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Universal postnatal contact services are provided in several Australian states, but their impact on women¿s postnatal care experience has not been evaluated. Furthermore, there is lack of evidence or consensus about the optimal type and amount of postpartum care after hospital discharge for maternal outcomes. This study aimed to assess the impact of providing Universal Postnatal Contact Service (UPNCS) funding to public birthing facilities in Queensland, Australia on women¿s postnatal care experiences, and associations between amount and type (telephone or home visits) of contact on parenting confidence, and perceived sufficiency and quality of postnatal care.Methods Data collected via retrospective survey of postnatal women (N¿=¿3,724) were used to compare women who birthed in UPNCS-funded and non-UPNCS-funded facilities on parenting confidence, sufficiency of postnatal care, and perceived quality of postnatal care. Associations between receiving telephone and home visits and the same outcomes, regardless of UPNCS funding, were also assessed.ResultsWomen who birthed in an UPNCS-funded facility were more likely to receive postnatal contact, but UPNCS funding was not associated with parenting confidence, or perceived sufficiency or perceived quality of care. Telephone contact was not associated with parenting confidence but had a positive dose¿response association with perceived sufficiency and quality. Home visits were negatively associated with parenting confidence when 3 or more were received, had a positive dose¿response association with perceived sufficiency and were positively associated with perceived quality when at least 6 were received.Conclusions Funding for UPNCS is unlikely to improve population levels of maternal parenting confidence, perceived sufficiency or quality of postpartum care. Where only minimal contact can be provided, telephone may be more effective than home visits for improving women¿s perceived sufficiency and quality of care. Additional service initiatives may be needed to improve women¿s parenting confidence.BMC Health Services Research 12/2014; 14(1):635. DOI:10.1186/s12913-014-0635-9 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Milk supply concern is the most common reason for breastfeeding discontinuation and maternal anxiety is also associated with reduced breastfeeding duration. Newborn excess weight loss (EWL) could trigger milk supply concern and anxiety and might be amenable to modification. Our objective was to determine the relationship between EWL and the development of milk supply concern and anxiety and the effect of such development on breastfeeding duration. We conducted a cohort analysis using data previously obtained from a randomised controlled trial comparing two post-hospital discharge follow-up strategies. For 1107 well, singleton infants born at ≥34 weeks, we extracted data on all inpatient infant weights. EWL was defined as the loss of ≥10% of birthweight. We surveyed mothers to obtain data on state anxiety and milk supply concern at birth and at 2 weeks. Our final outcome was breastfeeding at 6 months. Seventy (6.3%) infants developed EWL during the birth hospitalisation. At 2 weeks, milk supply concern and positive anxiety screen were more common (42% and 18%, respectively) among mothers whose infants had had EWL than among mothers whose infants had not had EWL (20% and 6%, respectively) (P < 0.001 for each comparison). Mothers with milk supply concern at 2 weeks were much less likely to be breastfeeding at 6 months, with odds ratio of 0.47 (0.30, 0.74) in multivariate analysis. EWL may increase milk supply concern and anxiety and these may reduce breastfeeding duration. Ameliorating EWL might alleviate milk supply concern and anxiety and improve breastfeeding duration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Maternal and Child Nutrition 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12171 · 2.97 Impact Factor