Pool fencing for preventing drowning in children (Review)

Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center, University of Washington, Box 359960, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 02/2000; 1(2):CD001047. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001047
Source: PubMed


In most industrialized countries, drowning is one of the top killers of children, especially young children. Medical care offers little to help drowning victims, and thus survival must rely on prevention of the drowning. The review found no trials of pool fencing. However evidence from other studies found that pool fencing that adequately prevents children reaching the pool unsupervised can prevent about three-quarters of all child drownings in pools. Fencing which completely encircles the pool and isolates it from the house is much more effective than methods where children can still gain access to the pool through the house.

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    • "Over the past 50 years, HICs such as Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have achieved a reduction in child drowning through a combination of these approaches [11] [12]. These include the enforcement of residential pool fencing, large scale media campaigns and a continued focus on education and training [13]. This has resulted in improved skills in and around the water via use of: pool and beach lifeguards; development of swimming programs and training to improve the skills of first responders [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Drowning is the leading cause of death from unintended injury in children globally. Drowning is preventable, and mechanisms exist which can reduce its impact, however the peer-reviewed literature to guide public health interventions is lacking. This paper describes a protocol for a review of drowning prevention interventions for children. Electronic searching will identify relevant peer-reviewed literature describing interventions to prevent child drowning worldwide. Outcome measures will include: drowning rates, water safety behaviour change, knowledge and/or attitude change, water safety policy and legislation, changes to environment and water safety skills. Quality appraisal and data extraction will be independently completed by two researchers using standardised forms recording descriptive and outcome data for each included article. Data analysis and presentation of results will occur after data have been extracted. This review will map the types of interventions being implemented to prevent drowning amongst children and identify gaps within the literature.
    Open Journal of Preventive Medicine 03/2014; 4(3):100. DOI:10.4236/ojpm.2014.43014
    • "Often, toddler drowning occurs as a result of falling into open water, like pools or lakes (Browne et al., 2003; Quan and Cummings, 2003), or due to submersion in a bathtub in the home (Brenner et al., 2001; ILS, 2007). Given the variety of locations in which child drowning can occur, approaches to prevention are quite varied and include environmentally focused strategies that emphasize barriers such as pool fences to prevent children's access to water hazards (Browne et al., 2003; Cody et al., 2004; Thompson and Rivara, 1998), as well as behavior-focused strategies that emphasize caregiver supervision and teaching children to swim. "
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    ABSTRACT: Drowning is a leading cause of child mortality globally. Strategies that have been suggested to reduce pediatric drowning risk include increased parental awareness of children's swimming ability and drowning risk, improved adult supervision of child swimmers, and providing swim lessons to children. This study explored how parents' beliefs relevant to children's drowning risk, perception of children's swimming ability, and judgments of supervision needs changed as children aged two through 5 years accumulated experience in swim lessons, and compared a parent group who received regular, detailed feedback about their child's swim skills with one that did not. Parents completed questionnaire measures near the beginning and end of a series of 10 weekly swim lessons. Results revealed that parental accuracy in judging children's swimming abilities remained relatively poor even though it improved from the beginning to the end of the swim lessons. Supervision needs were underestimated and did not vary with program or change over the course of swim lessons. Children's ability to keep themselves from drowning was overestimated and did not change over lessons or vary with program; parents believed that children could save themselves from drowning by the age of 6.21 years. Parents who had experienced a close call for drowning showed greater awareness of children's drowning risk and endorsed more watchful and proximal supervision. Results suggest that expanding learn-to-swim programs to include a parent-focused component that provides detailed tracking of swim skills and delivers messaging targeting perceptions of children's drowning risk and supervision needs may serve to maximize the drowning protection afforded by these programs. Delivering messaging in the form of 'close-call' drowning stories may prove especially effective to impact parents' supervision practices in drowning risk situations.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 10/2012; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2012.09.008 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite these substantial risks, the majority of household injuries can be prevented. In developed countries, a variety of preventive approaches have been shown to be effective including legislative measures, modification of the home environment with provision of safety equipment, and focused injury prevention counseling [13] [14] [15] [16] [17]. In addition, studies utilizing home visitation programs that include education and advice have been undertaken to gauge the impact of such interventions on injury reduction [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. A substantial proportion of the annual 875,000 childhood unintentional injury deaths occur in the home. Very few printed tools are available in South Asia for disseminating home injury prevention information. Methods. Three tools were planned: an injury hazard assessment tool appropriate for a developing country setting, an educational pamphlet highlighting strategies for reducing home injury hazards, and an in-home safety tutorial program to be delivered by a trained community health worker. Results. The three tools were successfully developed. Two intervention neighborhoods in Karachi, Pakistan, were mapped. The tools were pretested in this local setting and are now ready for pilot testing in an intervention study. Conclusion. Planning for an innovative, community-based pilot study takes considerable time and effort in a low-income setting like Pakistan. The primary outcome of the pre-testing phase of the study was the development of three important tools geared for low-income housing communities in Pakistan.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 04/2012; 2012:203204. DOI:10.1155/2012/203204
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