B lymphopoiesis in the thymus.
ABSTRACT The thymus has been regarded as the major site of T cell differentiation. We find that in addition to alphabeta and gammadelta T cells, a significant number (approximately 3 x 104 per day) of B220+IgM+ mature B cells are exported from the thymus of C57BL/6 mice. Of these emigrating B cells, we estimate that at least approximately 2 x 104 per day are cells which developed intrathymically, whereas a maximum of approximately 0.8 x 104 per day are cells which circulated through the thymus from the periphery. The thymus possesses a significant number of pro-B and pre-B cells that express CD19, VpreB, lambda5, and pax-5. These B cell progenitors were found in the thymic cortex, whereas increasingly mature B cells were found in the corticomedullar and medullary regions. Other lymphoid cells, including NK cells and lymphoid dendritic cells, are not exported from the thymus at detectable levels. Thus, the thymus contributes to the formation of peripheral pools of B cells as well as of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: William H. Carr, Jul 10, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The thymus is a lymphoid organ unique to vertebrates, and it provides a unique microenvironment that facilitates the differentiation of immature hematopoietic precursors into mature T cells. We subjected the evolutionary trajectory of the thymic microenvironment to experimental analysis. A hypothetical primordial form of the thymus was established in mice by replacing FOXN1, the vertebrate-specific master regulator of thymic epithelial cell function, with its metazoan ancestor, FOXN4, thereby resetting the regulatory and coding changes that have occurred since the divergence of these two paralogs. FOXN4 exhibited substantial thymopoietic activity. Unexpectedly, histological changes and a functional imbalance between the lymphopoietic cytokine IL7 and the T cell specification factor DLL4 within the reconstructed thymus resulted in coincident but spatially segregated T and B cell development. Our results identify an evolutionary mechanism underlying the conversion of a general lymphopoietic organ to a site of exclusive T cell generation.
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ABSTRACT: This study tested the hypothesis that besides the spleen, LNs, peripheral blood, and thymus contain a regulatory IL-10-producing CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(high) B cell subset that may play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Indeed, this population was identified in the murine thymus, and furthermore, when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells, this population of B cells supported the maintenance of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in vitro, in part, via the CD5-CD72 interaction. Mice homozygous for Cd19(Cre) (CD19(-/-)) express B cells with impaired signaling and humoral responses. Strikingly, CD19(-/-) mice produce fewer CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and a greater percentage of CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) T cells. Consistent with these results, transfer of thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells into CD19(-/-) mice resulted in significantly up-regulated numbers of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs with a concomitant reduction in CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) T cell populations in the thymus, spleen, and LNs but not in the BM of recipient mice. In addition, thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells significantly suppressed autoimmune responses in lupus-like mice via up-regulation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs and IL-10-producing Bregs. This study suggests that thymic CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi)IL-10(+) Bregs play a critical role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2014; DOI:10.1189/jlb.3A0414-213RR · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma that displays phenotypic and genotypic similarity to Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Studies using genome-wide discovery tools have revealed specific, recurrent structural aberrations as critical somatic events in the pathogenesis of PMBCL. These structural alterations prominently include transcript and protein altering rearrangements and copy number variations of the programmed death ligands 1 (CD274) and 2 (PDCD1LG2), CIITA, JAK2 and REL. Importantly, evidence is emerging that these acquired structural genomic changes, in synergy with other somatic alterations, contribute to PMBCL pathogenesis by influencing tumor microenvironment interactions that favor malignant B-cell growth. The means by which these rearrangements arise are not well understood, however, analysis of breakpoint junctions at base-pair resolution provides preliminary insight into the putative rearrangement mechanisms. As the field also anticipates predictive value and therapeutic targeting of structural changes involving the programmed death ligands and JAK2, a review of the therapies that will likely shape future lymphoma treatment is needed.Leukemia and Lymphoma 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.985673 · 2.61 Impact Factor