Cardiac and lung complication probabilities after breast cancer irradiation.
ABSTRACT To assess for locoregional irradiation of breast cancer patients, the dependence of cardiac (cardiac mortality) and lung (radiation pneumonitis) complications on treatment technique and individual patient anatomy.
Three-dimensional treatment planning was performed for 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer and various breast sizes. Two locoregional techniques (Techniques A and B) and a tangential field technique, including only the breast in the target volume, were planned and evaluated for each patient. In both locoregional techniques tangential photon fields were used to irradiate the breast. The internal mammary (IM)-medial supraclavicular (MS) lymph nodes were treated with an anterior mixed electron/photon field (Technique A) or with an obliquely incident mixed electron/photon IM field and an anterior electron/photon MS field (Technique B). The optimal IM and MS electron field dimensions and energies were chosen on the basis of the IM-MS lymph node target volume as delineated on CT-slices. The position of the tangential fields was adapted to match the IM-MS fields. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) for the heart and lung were compared for the three techniques. In the beam's eye view of the medial tangential fields the maximum distance of the heart contour to the posterior field border was measured; this value was scored as the Maximum Heart Distance.
The lymph node target volume receiving more than 85% of the prescribed dose was on average 99% for both locoregional irradiation techniques. The breast PTV receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose was generally smaller using Technique A (mean: 90%, range: 69-99%) than using Technique B (mean: 98%, range: 82-100%) or for the tangential field technique (mean: 98%, range: 91-100%). NTCP values for excess cardiac mortality due to acute myocardial ischemia varied considerably between patients, with minimum and maximum values of 0.1 and 7.5% (Technique A), 0.1 and 5.8% (Technique B) and 0.0 and 6.1% (tangential tech.). The NTCP values were on average significantly higher (P<0.001) by 1.7% (Technique A) and 1.0% (Technique B) when locoregional breast irradiation was given, compared with irradiation of the left breast only. The NTCP values for the tangential field technique could be estimated using the Maximum Heart Distance. NTCP values for radiation pneumonitis were very low for all techniques; between 0.0 and 1.0%.
Technique B results in a good coverage of the breast and locoregional lymph nodes, while Technique A sometimes results in an underdosage of part of the target volume. Both techniques result in a higher probability of heart complications compared with tangential irradiation of the breast only. Irradiation toxicity for the lung is low in all techniques. The Maximum Heart Distance is a simple and useful parameter to estimate the NTCP values for cardiac mortality for tangential breast irradiation.
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ABSTRACT: In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high risk criteria. There are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy because of the variability of the anatomic region, structures and risk criteria in the irradiation field. When irradiating the target volume we also consider homogeneity of dose distribution and minimizing the dose to critical structures such as the heart and lung. In this study, we have evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in twelve patients with left breast cancer who had breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A two-dimensional computerized planning system (2-DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, perpendicular photon-electron and oblique-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume, the doses received by the heart and lung, and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages besides the internal mammary chain with both wide-field, photon-electron and oblique-electron techniques. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed the heart to a smaller radiation dose than photon-electron techniques. The oblique electron techniques provide a minimal radiation dose to critical structures. In oblique electron techniques, if the internal mammary chain was not covered in the target volume, the heart dose was minimized. In conclusion, we suggest using oblique-electron techniques in breast irradiation where the internal mammary is in the target volume.Contemporary Oncology / Wspólczesna Onkologia 01/2013; 17(3):291-7. · 0.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in females. Advances in systemic therapies and radiotherapy (RT) provided long survival rates in breast cancer patients. RT has a major role in the management of breast cancer. During the past 15 years several developments took place in the field of imaging and irradiation techniques, intensity modulated RT, hypofractionation and partial-breast irradiation. Currently, improvements in the RT technology allow us a subsequent decrease in the treatment-related complications such as fibrosis and long-term cardiac toxicity while improving the loco-regional control rates and cosmetic results. Thus, it is crucial that modern radiotherapy techniques should be carried out with maximum care and efficiency. Several randomized trials provided evidence for the feasibility of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. However, the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer will continue to be defined by the mature results of randomized trials. Current review will provide an up-to-date evidence based data on the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer.World journal of clinical oncology. 08/2014; 5(3):425-439.
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ABSTRACT: To quantify the cardiac dose reduction during breathing adapted radiotherapy using Real-time Position Management (RPM) system in the treatment of left-sided breast cancer.Radiation oncology journal. 06/2014; 32(2):84-94.