Article

Herd-level risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in US dairies and association between familiarity of the herd manager with the disease or prior diagnosis of the disease in that herd and use of preventive measures.

Department of Clinical and Population Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul 55108, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.67). 05/2000; 216(9):1450-7. DOI: 10.2460/javma.2000.216.1450
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate associations among herd infection status, herd management practices, and familiarity of the herd manager with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) or prior disease diagnosis in that herd to support development of Johne's disease-control programs.
Population-based cross-sectional study.
1,004 US dairies, each with > or = 30 cows, representing 79.4% of US dairy cows.
Questionnaires were administered to dairy managers, and blood samples were collected from cows during herd visits. Sera were tested for antibodies to M paratuberculosis, using a commercially available ELISA. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between use of management practices, herd disease status, and familiarity of the manager with Johne's disease or prior diagnosis of Johne's disease in that herd.
Results from serologic testing revealed that 3.4% of cows and 21.6% of dairy herds were infected with M paratuberculosis. Factors associated with infection included number of cows in herd, region of country, percentage of cows born at other dairies, group housing for periparturient cows, and group housing for preweaned calves. Few preventive practices were positively associated with prior diagnosis of Johne's disease (time of separation of newborn calf from dam) or familiarity of the manager with the disease (teats and udder washed before colostrum collected).
Risk factors associated with Johne's disease in this study confirmed those management practices generally recommended for disease control. An educational problem, however, is the finding that herd managers familiar with Johne's disease generally use management practices similar to those used by managers unfamiliar with the disease.

2 Followers
 · 
42 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to systematically collect and appraise the scientific evidence related to risk factors associated with the introduction of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) into a herd of cattle. An electronic search was conducted to collect relevant references addressing 2 specific questions: are i) purchasing/introduction of cattle into a herd, and ii) presence of wildlife or domestic animals, risk factors for the introduction of MAP into a herd? The screening was based on titles and abstracts and selected studies were fully analyzed. Seventeen manuscripts published between 1996 and 2011 were ultimately analyzed. Unit of interest was mainly the herd (n = 17). The specific description of the risk factors studied varied between studies. The principal study design was cross-sectional (n = 15). The review indicated that purchase/introduction of animals was an important risk factor and that the importance of wildlife or other domestic species as a mechanism for transmission into a cattle herd was not measurable.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourguier (R) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa (TM) (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR = 0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR = 0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR = 0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 12/2014; 117(3-4):447-55. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.10.004 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. A number of farm management practices are associated with increased risk of JD transmission. The aim of the current study was to document JD-related management practices currently employed on Irish dairy farms. Survey questions focused on calving area (CA), calf and manure management. Independent variables (region, calving-season, enterprise type, herd size and biosecurity status) were used to examine influences on JD associated dependent variables (survey questions). Additionally general biosecurity practices were also examined. Results showed management practices implemented by Irish dairy farmers pose a high risk of JD transmission. Of the farmers surveyed, 97% used the CA for more than one calving, 73.5% and 87.8% pooled colostrum and milk respectively, 33.7% never cleaned the CA between calving's, and 56.6% used the CA for isolating sick cows. Survey results also highlighted that larger herds were more likely to engage in high risk practices for JD transmission, such as pooling colostrum (OR 4.8) and overcrowding the CA (OR 7.8). Larger herds were also less likely than smaller herds to clean the CA (OR 0.28), a practice also considered of risk in the transmission of JD. Many management practices associated with risk of JD transmission were commonly applied on Irish dairy farms. Larger herds were more likely to engage in high risk practices for JD transmission. Control programmes should incorporate educational tools outlining the pathogenesis and transmission of JD to highlight the risks associated with implementing certain management practices with regard to JD transmission.
    Irish Veterinary Journal 12/2014; 67(1):27. DOI:10.1186/s13620-014-0027-9 · 1.71 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
8 Downloads
Available from