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    ABSTRACT: The Incas were Quechua-speaking people who settled down near Cuzco (Peru). They had an empire ranging from Ecuador to Chile, when Spanish conquerors seized their kingdom around 1532 AD. Nowadays, Quechua-speaking people inhabits Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and Argentina; however, Quechua language was imposed by both Incas and Spaniards to many non-Quechua speaking communities. We have taken a sample of Quechuan Bolivian blood donors from La Paz (Titicaca Lake region) where Inca-Quechuas themselves believed that came from. This group was compared with 6892 individuals from 68 different world populations regarding HLA/DNA allele frequencies distribution. Genetic distances, dendrograms and correspondence analyses were carried out in order to establish relationships among populations. The main conclusions are: (1) DRB1 and -DQB1 haplotypes shared with Asians are found in Quechuas and are not observed in other (Mesoamerican) Amerindians. (2) Aymara-speaking people from the same Titicaca Lake (La Paz) area shows close genetic distances with Quechuas in one dimension results (genetic distances); however, their HLA gene frequency distribution differs according to Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees and correspondence analysis (multidimensional and more reliable analyses). Also, the common high frequency Asian and Athabascan HLA-DRB1*0901 allele is found in Quechuas in a significant frequency. Quechuas are clearly included within the Amerindian group.
    European Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2006; 49(2):169-85. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The HLA allele frequency distribution of the Mayans from Guatemala was studied and compared with those of other First American Natives and worldwide populations (a total of 12,364 chromosomes and 6182 individuals from 60 different populations). The main conclusions were (1): the closest Amerindian group to Mayans is the Arhuacs, who were the first recorded Caribbean Islands' inhabitants (2). Mayans are not so close to Mesoamerican Zapotec, Mixe and Mixtec Amerindians, who genetically cluster together. Mixe had been related to Mayans only on linguistic bases (3). DRB1*0407 and DRB1*0802 alleles are found in 50% of Mayans; these alleles are also found in other Amerindians, but the Mayans' high frequencies may be showing a founder effect for this Mesoamerican-Caribbean population (4). Extended Mayan specific HLA haplotypes are described for the first time (5). Language and genes do not completely correlate in microgeographical studies (6). Significant genetic input from outside is not noticed in Meso and South American Amerindians according to the genetic analyses; while all world populations (including Africans, Europeans, Asians, Australians, Polynesians, North American Na-Dene Indians and Eskimos) are genetically related. Meso and South American Amerindians tend to remain isolated in the neighbour joining analyses.
    Tissue Antigens 07/2003; 61(6):425-36. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Immunogenetics 07/2001; 28(3):377-424.