Glucocorticoid resistance in asthma is associated with elevated in vivo expression of the glucocorticoid receptor beta-isoform.
ABSTRACT Glucocorticoid-resistant bronchial asthma is characterized by failure of corticosteroids to suppress key asthma-relevant, cell-mediated inflammatory responses in the airways.
The mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear but may involve aberrant expression of the beta-isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor.
We have measured expression of the alpha- and beta-glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in tuberculin-driven cutaneous cell-mediated inflammatory lesions in people with asthma who are glucocorticoid sensitive and resistant after 9 days of therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) or matching placebo in a random order, crossover design.
After placebo therapy, the mean numbers of cells expressing glucocorticoid receptor alpha immunoreactivity in the lesions evoked in glucocorticoid-sensitive and -resistant patients with asthma were statistically equivalent. The numbers of cells expressing glucocorticoid receptor beta were significantly elevated in the patients who were glucocorticoid resistant, resulting in an 8-fold higher ratio of expression of glucocorticoid receptor alpha/glucocorticoid receptor beta in the patients who were glucocorticoid sensitive. Glucocorticoid receptor alpha/glucocorticoid receptors beta were colocalized to the same cells. Oral prednisolone therapy was associated with a significant decrease in the numbers of cells expressing glucocorticoid receptor alpha but not glucocorticoid receptor beta in the subjects who were glucocorticoid sensitive. No significant change was found in the numbers of cells expressing glucocorticoid receptor alpha and glucocorticoid receptor beta in the patients who were glucocorticoid resistant. Prednisolone therapy reduced the ratio of glucocorticoid receptor alpha/glucocorticoid receptor beta expression for the patients who were glucocorticoid sensitive to a level seen in the patients who were glucocorticoid resistant before therapy.
Because glucocorticoid receptor beta inhibits alpha-glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation of target genes, the increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor beta in inflammatory cells might be a critical mechanism for conferring glucocorticoid resistance.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Glucocorticoid functions are markedly impaired in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast N-oxide (RNO) is the active metabolite of roflumilast approved as a treatment to reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Objective We sought to characterize the differential effects of RNO versus corticosteroids and their potential additive/synergistic effect in neutrophils from patients with COPD, thus providing scientific rationale for the combination of roflumilast with corticosteroids in the clinic. Methods Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated from patients with COPD (n = 32), smokers (n = 7), and healthy nonsmokers (n = 25). Levels of IL-8, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), and biomarkers of glucocorticoid resistance were determined by using ELISA and RT-PCR. Neutrophils were incubated with dexamethasone (0.1 nmol/L to 1 μmol/L), RNO (0.1 nmol/L to 1 μmol/L), or the combination of 1 nmol/L RNO plus 10 nmol/L DEX and stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL) or cigarette smoke extract 5%; levels of IL-8, MMP-9, and other biomarkers were measured at the end of the incubation period. Results Peripheral neutrophils from patients with COPD showed a primed phenotype with an increased basal release of IL-8 and MMP-9 and expressed a corticosteroid resistance molecular profile characterized by an increase in phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and glucocorticoid receptor β expression and a decrease in HDAC activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 expression. RNO demonstrated robust anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophils from patients with COPD, reversing their resistance to corticosteroids. The combination of RNO and dexamethasone showed additive/synergistic effects, which were consistent with the reversal of corticosteroid-resistant molecular markers by RNO. Conclusion RNO reverses corticosteroid resistance and shows strong anti-inflammatory effects alone or in combination with corticosteroids on neutrophils from patients with COPD.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 08/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2013; 2013:705232. · 2.93 Impact Factor
Dataset: YIM Review PPT 2014