Anatomical study of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, emphasizing dural construction and neural relations.
ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the microscopic anatomy of the layers of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus (CS) and, in particular, intends to examine the location and relations of the dural openings on the deep layer. Forty sides of 20 formalin-fixed and fresh cadavers were dissected and their CS examined. In 12 cases we found an opening on the deep dural layer; however, in four of them the inferolateral trunk of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was identified through these dural openings. We noticed the trochlear nerve making a curve (5% of cases) or lying close to the ophthalmic nerve (12.5%) on the lateral wall. In one case, the triangular area described by Parkinson could not be exposed surgically. Our findings indicate the importance of the heterogeneous courses of the cranial nerves lying on the lateral wall and point to the significance of the dural openings, which can influence the etiology of neoplastic invasions originating from the CS.
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ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) constructive interference in steady state (CISS) MR imaging is useful for demonstrating cranial nerves (CNs) in the cistern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal CNs III, IV, V1, V2, and VI in the cavernous sinuses by using contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional (3D), Fourier transformation CISS MR imaging. In 76 normal cavernous sinuses from 38 patients, detectability of CNs III-VI in the bilateral cavernous sinuses was evaluated by using contrast-enhanced 3D CISS MR imaging. In 40 cavernous sinuses from 20 patients, contrast-enhanced 3D CISS and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging were compared for the detectability of these CNs. Each CN was separately demonstrated, and in 11 patients (29%), all CNs in the cavernous sinuses were identified on contrast-enhanced 3D CISS MR imaging. The images depicted the intracavernous segments of CNs III, IV, V1, V2, and VI in 76 (100%), 46 (61%), 70 (92%), 67 (88%), and 73 (96%) of the 76 sinuses, respectively. In comparison of imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced 3D CISS MR imaging had a detection rate significantly higher than that of enhanced T1-weighting imaging (P < .05) in all CNs except for CN III, which was detected in 100% of cases with both techniques. Contrast-enhanced 3D CISS MR imaging provides clear images of each CN in the cavernous segment. This useful method may contribute to the diagnosis of diseases involving the cavernous sinuses, such as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.American Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2005; 26(4):946-50. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional anatomical appreciation of the matrix of the cavernous sinus is one of the crucial necessities for a better understanding of tissue patterning and various disorders in the sinus. The purpose of this study was to reveal configuration of fibrous and adipose components in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with the cranial nerves and vessels in the sinus and meningeal sinus wall. Nineteen cadavers (8 females and 11 males; age range, 54-89 years; mean age, 75 years) were prepared as transverse (6 sets), coronal (3 sets) and sagittal (10 sets) plastinated sections that were examined at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Two types of the web-like fibrous networks were identified and localized in the cavernous sinus. A dural trabecular network constituted a skeleton-frame in the sinus and contributed to the sleeves of intracavernous cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2 and VI. A fine trabecular network, or adipose tissue, was the matrix of the sinus and was mainly distributed along the medial side of the intracavernous cranial nerves, forming a dumbbell-shaped adipose zone in the sinus. This study revealed the nature, fine architecture and localization of the fine and dural trabecular networks in the cavernous sinus and their relationship with intracavernous cranial nerves and vessels. The results may be valuable for better understanding of tissue patterning in the cranial base and better evaluation of intracavernous disorders, e.g. the growth direction and extent of intracavernous tumors.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89182. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Carotid cavernous fistulas.Fortschritte der Ophthalmologie: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft 02/1983; 79(5):391-2.