Evaluation of tumor measurements in oncology: use of film-based and electronic techniques.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the variability in bidimensional computed tomography (CT) measurements obtained of actual tumors and of tumor phantoms by use of three measurement techniques: hand-held calipers on film, electronic calipers on a workstation, and an autocontour technique on a workstation.
Three radiologists measured 45 actual tumors (in the lung, liver, and lymph nodes) on CT images, using each of the three techniques. Bidimensional measurements were recorded, and their cross-products calculated. The coefficient of variation was calculated to assess interobserver variability. CT images of 48 phantoms were measured by three radiologists with each of the techniques. In addition to the coefficient of variation, the differences between the cross-product measurements of tumor phantoms themselves and the measurements obtained with each of the techniques were calculated.
The differences between the coefficients of variation were statistically significantly different for the autocontour technique, compared with the other techniques, both for actual tumors and for tumor phantoms. There was no statistically significant difference in the coefficient of variation between measurements obtained with hand-held calipers and electronic calipers. The cross-products for tumor phantoms were 12% less than the actual cross-product when calipers on film were used, 11% less using electronic calipers, and 1% greater using the autocontour technique.
Tumor size is obtained more accurately and consistently between readers using an automated autocontour technique than between those using hand-held or electronic calipers. This finding has substantial implications for monitoring tumor therapy in an individual patient, as well as for evaluating the effectiveness of new therapies under development.
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ABSTRACT: We present and evaluate an automatic and quantitative method for the complex task of characterizing individual nodule volumetric progression in a longitudinal mouse model of lung cancer. Fourteen A/J mice received an intraperitoneal injection of urethane. Respiratory-gated micro-CT images of the lungs were acquired at 8, 22, and 37weeks after injection. A radiologist identified a total of 196, 585 and 636 nodules, respectively. The three micro-CT image volumes from every animal were then registered and the nodules automatically matched with an average accuracy of 99.5%. All nodules detected at week 8 were tracked all the way to week 37, and volumetrically segmented to measure their growth and doubling rates. 92.5% of all nodules were correctly segmented, ranging from the earliest stage to advanced stage, where nodule segmentation becomes more challenging due to complex anatomy and nodule overlap. Volume segmentation was validated using a foam lung phantom with embedded polyethylene microspheres. We also correlated growth rates with nodule phenotypes based on histology, to conclude that the growth rate of malignant tumors is significantly higher than that of benign lesions. In conclusion, we present a turnkey solution that combines longitudinal imaging with nodule matching and volumetric nodule segmentation resulting in a powerful tool for preclinical research.Medical image analysis 07/2013; 17(8):1095-1105. DOI:10.1016/j.media.2013.07.002 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The imaging evaluation of pulmonary nodules, often incidentally detected on imaging examinations performed for other clinical reasons, is a frequently encountered clinical circumstance. With advances in imaging modalities, both the detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules continue to evolve and improve. Areas covered: This article will review the imaging modalities used to detect and diagnose benign and malignant pulmonary nodules, with a focus on computed tomography (CT), which continues to be the mainstay for evaluation. The authors discuss recent advances in the lung nodule management, and an algorithm for the management of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Expert opinion: There are set of criteria that define a benign nodule, the most important of which are the lack of temporal change for 2 years or more, and certain benign imaging criteria, including specific patterns of calcification or the presence of fat. Although some indeterminate pulmonary nodules are immediately actionable, generally those approaching 1 cm or larger in diameter, at which size the diagnostic accuracy of tools such as positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, single photon emission CT (SPECT) and biopsy techniques are sufficient to warrant their use. The majority of indeterminate pulmonary nodules are under 1 cm, for which serial CT examinations through at least 2 years for solid nodules and 3 years for ground-glass nodules, are used to demonstrate either benign biologic behavior or otherwise. The management of incidental pulmonary nodules involves a multidisciplinary approach in which radiology plays a pivotal role. Newer imaging and postprocessing techniques have made this a more accurate technique eliminating ambiguity and unnecessary follow-up.Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics 11/2013; 7(6):629-44. DOI:10.1517/17530059.2013.858117
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ABSTRACT: Object Robust methodology that allows objective, automated, and observer-independent measurements of brain tumor volume, especially after resection, is lacking. Thus, determination of tumor response and progression in neurooncology is unreliable. The objective of this study was to determine if a semi-automated volumetric method for quantifying enhancing tissue would perform with high reproducibility and low interobserver variability. Methods Fifty-seven MR images from 13 patients with glioblastoma were assessed using our method, by 2 neuroradiologists, 1 neurosurgeon, 1 neurosurgical resident, 1 nurse practitioner, and 1 medical student. The 2 neuroradiologists also performed traditional 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed interobserver variability between measurements. Radiological response was determined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines and Macdonald criteria. Kappa statistics described interobserver variability of volumetric radiological response determinations. Results There was strong agreement for 1D (RECIST) and 2D (Macdonald) measurements between neuroradiologists (ICC = 0.42 and 0.61, respectively), but the agreement using the authors' novel automated approach was significantly stronger (ICC = 0.97). The volumetric method had the strongest agreement with regard to radiological response (κ = 0.96) when compared with 2D (κ = 0.54) or 1D (κ = 0.46) methods. Despite diverse levels of experience of the users of the volumetric method, measurements using the volumetric program remained remarkably consistent in all users (0.94). Conclusions Interobserver variability using this new semi-automated method is less than the variability with traditional methods of tumor measurement. This new method is objective, quick, and highly reproducible among operators with varying levels of expertise. This approach should be further evaluated as a potential standard for response assessment based on contrast enhancement in brain tumors.Journal of Neurosurgery 07/2014; 121(3):1-7. DOI:10.3171/2014.4.JNS121952 · 3.23 Impact Factor