Quantitative grading of rat esophageal carcinogenesis using computer-assisted image tile analysis.
ABSTRACT Our objective was to grade, by computer-assisted quantitative image tile analysis, the intraepithelial neoplasia (also called dysplasia) that develops in esophagi of rats given N-nitrosomethybenzylamine (NMBA) for 5 weeks. To perform image tile analysis, the computer divides the video image of the neoplastic epithelium into a row of contiguous small rectangular images, or "tiles," 84 x 292 microm in size, and quantitatively measures four selected tissue features within each image tile. The computer then calculates a tile grade for each image tile as the weighted sum of the four feature measurements, transformed into statistical Z-scores, the weights being determined by Fisher linear discriminant analysis of 300 tile grades of the neoplastic epithelium referenced to the mean tile grade (MTG) of 300 image tiles of normal epithelium. The two grading parameters, MTG and the percentage of tile grades exceeding the MTG of normal epithelium by >4 SD units (%TG>4SD), were validated as endpoints for screening chemopreventive agents in the rat NMBA-induced esophageal carcinogenesis model in two ways: (a) after NMBA treatment, %TG>4SD developed in parallel with tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity (number of papillomas/tumor-bearing rat); and (b) placing the chemopreventive phenethylisothiocyanate in the food of NMBA-treated rats produced parallel reductions in MTG, tumor incidence, and tumor multiplicity. Both MTG and %TG>4SD, measured by quantitative image tile analysis, are sensitive and objective continuous parametric response variables expressed to three significant figures, with wide dynamic range, that may be evaluated by t tests to compare tissue neoplastic changes before and after treatment with a chemopreventive agent.
SourceAvailable from: Hitoshi Endou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We recently reported that prenatal rat exposure to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) induced Leydig cell (LC) hyperplasia after nine weeks (wks) of age, yet the number of LCs was similar to that of the vehicle group until seven weeks. Nuclear pleomorphism of hyperplastic LCs is common and is considered to be continuous progressive degeneration. Thus, computer-assisted image cell nuclear analysis of LCs was performed on 5- and 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats whose dams had been administered DBP (i.g.) at 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (corn oil) on gestation day 12 to 21. The results of the 5-wk-old DBP group were similar to those of the vehicle group; LC nuclei of the 7-wk-old DBP group showed normal ploidy and similar amounts of DNA. However, the size, elongation and peripheral chromatin aggregation parameters were significantly higher, and the reticular chromatin distribution and isolated chromatin aggregation parameters were significantly lower compared with the vehicle group. The present study quantitatively demonstrated nuclear morphological alterations in rat LCs at 7 wks old (puberty) due to the prenatal DBP administration before apparent LC hyperplasia developed.Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 12/2013; 26(4):439-46. DOI:10.1293/tox.2013-0031 · 0.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biomedical imaging with light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) is a novel optical technology developed to probe the structure of living epithelial cells in situ without need for tissue removal. LSS makes it possible to distinguish between single backscattering from epithelial-cell nuclei and multiply scattered light. The spectrum of the single backscattering component is further analyzed to provide quantitative information about the epithelial-cell nuclei such as nuclear size, degree of pleomorphism, degree of hyperchromasia and amount of chromatin. LSS imaging allows mapping these histological properties over wide areas of epithelial lining. Because nuclear enlargement, pleomorphism and hyperchromasia are principal features of nuclear atypia associated with precancerous and cancerous changes in virtually all epithelia, LSS imaging can be used to detect precancerous lesions in optically accessible organs.Nature Medicine 12/2001; 7(11):1245-8. DOI:10.1038/nm1101-1245 · 28.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A major challenge in creating and optimizing therapeutics in the fight against cancer is visualizing and understanding the microscale spatiotemporal treatment response dynamics that occur in patients. This is especially true for photodynamic therapy (PDT), where therapeutic optimization relies on understanding the interplay between factors such as photosensitizer localization and uptake, in addition to light dose and delivery rate. In vitro 3D culture systems that recapitulate many of the biological features of human disease are powerful platforms for carrying out detailed studies on PDT response and resistance. Current techniques for visualizing these models, however, often lack accuracy due to the perturbative nature of the sample preparation, with light attenuation complicating the study of intact models. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an ideal method for the long-term, non-perturbative study of in vitro models and their response to PDT. Monitoring the response of 3D models to PDT by time-lapse OCT methods promises to provide new perspectives and open the way to cancer treatment methodologies that can be translated towards the clinic.Israel Journal of Chemistry 09/2012; 52(8-9):728-744. DOI:10.1002/ijch.201200009 · 2.56 Impact Factor