A comparative study of galactose oxidase and active site analogs based on QM/MM Car-Parrinello simulations.
ABSTRACT A parallel study of the radical copper enzyme galactose oxidase (GOase) and a low molecular weight analog of the active site was performed with dynamical density functional and mixed quantum-classical calculations. This combined approach enables a direct comparison of the properties of the biomimetic and the natural systems throughout the course of the catalytic reaction. In both cases, five essential forms of the catalytic cycle have been investigated: the resting state in its semi-reduced (catalytically inactive) and its oxidized (catalytically active) form, A(semi) and A(ox), respectively; a protonated intermediate B; the transition state for the rate-determining hydrogen abstraction step C, and its product D. For A and B the electronic properties of the biomimetic compound are qualitatively very similar to the ones of the natural target. However, in agreement with the experimentally observed difference in catalytic activity, the calculated activation energy for the hydrogen abstraction step is distinctly lower for GOase (16 kcal/mol) than for the mimetic compound (21 kcal/mol). The enzymatic transition state is stabilized by a delocalization of the unpaired spin density over the sulfur-modified equatorial tyrosine Tyr272, an effect that for geometric reasons is essentially absent in the biomimetic compound. Further differences between the mimic and its natural target concern the structure of the product of the abstraction step, which is characterized by a weakly coordinated aldehyde complex for the latter and a tightly bound linear complex for the former.
Article: NADH interactions with WT- and S94A-acyl carrier protein reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an ab initio study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present an ab initio molecular dynamics study of the complex between acyl carrier protein reductase InhA from M. tuberculosis and isonicotinic acid hydrazide-NADH. We focus on wild-type (WT) InhA and a mutant causing drug resistance (S94A) for which structural information is available (Rozwarski et al., 1998;279:98--102; Dessen et al., 1995;267:1638--1641). Our calculations suggest that the water-mediated H-bond interactions between Ser94 side chain and NADH, present in WT InhA X-ray structure, can be lost during the dynamics. This conformational change is accompanied by a structural rearrangement of Gly14. The calculated structure of WT is rather similar to the X-ray structure of the S94A mutant in terms of geometrical parameters and chemical bonding. Further evidence for the mobility of Ser94 is provided by a 1-ns-long classical molecular dynamics on the entire protein. The previously unrecognized high mobility of Ser94 can provide a rationale of the small change in free binding energies on passing from WT to S94A InhA.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 05/2002; 47(1):62-8. · 3.39 Impact Factor
Article: DFT-based molecular dynamics as a new tool for computational biology: First applications and perspective[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Static and molecular dynamics (MD) calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) are emerging as a valuable means for simulations in the field of biology, especially when coupled with classical simulations. In this contribution, we point out the strengths as well as the limitations of the DFTMD method, and its possible use to complement existing approaches. Recent applications to systems of biochemical and pharmacological interest are discussed, and an outline is given of steps to be taken regarding future calculations.Ibm Journal of Research and Development 06/2001; · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent years have witnessed an explosion in computational power, leading to attempts to model ever more complex systems. Nevertheless, there remain cases for which the use of brute-force computer simulations is clearly not the solution. In such cases, great benefit can be obtained from the use of physically sound simplifications. The introduction of such coarse graining can be traced back to the early usage of a simplified model in studies of proteins. Since then, the field has progressed tremendously. In this review, we cover both key developments in the field and potential future directions. Additionally, particular emphasis is given to two general approaches, namely the renormalization and reference potential approaches, which allow one to move back and forth between the coarse-grained (CG) and full models, as these approaches provide the foundation for CG modeling of complex systems.Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 04/2010; 62:41-64. · 14.13 Impact Factor