Ketoacidosis in young adults is not related to the islet antibodies at the diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus--a nationwide study.
ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that there is lower prevalence of islet antibodies in subjects with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus in young adulthood than in children is associated with less severe diabetes at time of diagnosis.
This investigation was based on a nationwide study (Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden) of 15-34-year-old newly diagnosed diabetic subjects. During 1992-1993, all diabetic subjects (excluding secondary and gestational diabetes) were reported on standardized forms, with information about clinical characteristics at diagnosis. The study examined islet cell antibodies (ICA) by indirect immunofluorescence, and autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), tyrosine phosphatase-like antigen (IA-2A) and insulin (IAA) as well as C-peptide by radioimmunoassay.
Blood samples were available from 78 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and 517 non-acidotic patients. The prevalence of ICA (63% vs. 57%), GADA (63% vs. 66%), IA-2A (35% vs. 44%) and IAA (20% vs. 15%) were very similar in patients with or without DKA. The median levels of the four autoantibodies did not differ between the two groups. High blood glucose (P < 0.001) and low C-peptide levels (P < 0.001) were the only parameters found to be related to DKA.
The similarities in findings of newly diagnosed diabetic patients with or without DKA regarding ICA, GADA, IA-2A and IAA suggest that there is no relationship between the expression of antigenicity and the severity of beta-cell dysfunction. The lower prevalence of the four autoantibodies in 15-34-year-old diabetic subjects compared with previous findings in children is not explained by misclassification of diabetes type.
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ABSTRACT: Sera obtained at diagnosis from 273 children (0-14 years) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) were studied to compare different autoantibody levels. The subjects comprise 75% of all incident cases in New South Wales, Australia, for a 2-year period (ascertainment > 99% complete). Antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase were measured by radioimmunoprecipitation, insulin autoantibodies (on 176 sera collected within 4 days of initiation of insulin therapy) by radioimmunoassay, thyroid peroxidase and antigliadin IgA antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and anti-endomysial IgA and islet cell antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Reference ranges for anti-glutamate decarboxylase and insulin autoantibodies were determined in a group of non-diabetic children. Of the sera 69% were positive for anti-glutamate decarboxylase, 65% for insulin autoantibodies, 71% for islet cell antibodies (> or = 20 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation units), 10% for anti-thyroid peroxidase, 2.6% for antigliadin and 3.0% for anti-endomysial antibodies. Islet cell antibodies and insulin autoantibodies were both negative in 13.7% of the sera, while only 5.8% were negative for all three of islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies and anti-glutamate decarboxylase. There was a higher frequency of anti-glutamate decarboxylase among girls than boys (75% vs 63%, p = 0.03) and a negative correlation between the level of insulin autoantibodies and age at diagnosis (r = -0.41, p < 0.0001). A higher frequency of antithyroid peroxidase was found with increasing age (p = 0.05). Higher titres of islet cell antibodies were associated with a higher frequency of both anti-glutamate decarboxylase (p < 0.0001) and insulin autoantibodies (p = 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Diabetologia 12/1994; 37(11):1113-20. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We surveyed the clinical presentation, initial management and subsequent course of a prospectively registered, population-based cohort of 230 patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus diagnosed before age 21 years in the Oxford Regional Health Authority area in 1985 and 1986. Clinical details from the time of diagnosis were available on 219 patients. Thirty-four (16%) were in severe ketoacidosis with pH less than 7.10 or plasma bicarbonate less than 10 mmol/l, and 21 (10%) had mild to moderate ketoacidosis with pH 7.10–7.35 or plasma bicarbonate 10–21 mmol/l. One child died in ketoacidosis. Presentation in severe ketoacidosis was most common in children under age 5 years (p<0.05), and ketoacidosis of any degree was less frequent in older children (0.05< p<0.01) and those with a parent or sibling with diabetes (p<0.01). Within 4 years of diagnosis, 55 of 211 patients (26%) experienced severe hypoglycaemia, which in 31 (15%) led to one or more admissions. Readmission for unstable glycaemic control excluding acute hypoglycaemia occurred at least once within 1 year of diagnosis in 13% and within 4 years in 28%, and was more common in girls, in children aged less than 10 years at diagnosis, and those with a history of severe hypoglycaemia. A second cohort of 97 similar patients was recruited in 1990. The rates of admission at diagnosis (79%), severe ketoacidosis (13%) and mild to moderate ketoacidosis (13%) did not differ from the 1985/1986 cohort. Despite recent developments in diabetes management and a high level of clinical ommitment at participating centres, ketoacidosis remains a common presentation of childhood diabetes, and hypoglycaemia is unacceptably frequent in the years following diagnosis. Greater public and medical awareness of the presenting features of diabetes in young children is needed to reduce the frequency of ketoacidosis at presentation, while hypoglycaemia remains a major obstacle to good glycaemic control.Diabetologia 04/1994; 37(1):70-74. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most studies evaluating immune markers for prediction of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus have focused on first degree relatives, although only 10% of newly-diagnosed patients have an affected first degree relative. The Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register identifies 99% of all diabetic children at diagnosis. In this population-based study, islet cell antibodies and insulin autoantibodies in 0-14-year-old Swedish consecutively-diagnosed patients and control subjects were analysed to define their sensitivity and specificity. Over 16 months (1986-1987), 515 Swedish children developed diabetes. Plasma samples were obtained from 494 (96%) patients, and 420 matched control children. Among patients, the frequency of islet cell antibodies was 84% (415 of 494), insulin autoantibodies 43% (145 of 334); 40% (135 of 334) were positive for both and 88% (294 of 334) were positive for one or both. Among control children, 3% (14 of 420) had islet cell antibodies, 1% (4 of 390) insulin autoantibodies, and 4% (16 of 390) had either autoantibody marker. The predictive value of finding a patient with the disease was only 7% since 4% of the control children were antibody-positive and the cumulative incidence rate up to 15 years of age is 0.38%. None of the autoantibody-positive (n = 21) or negative control children developed diabetes during 3 to 5 years of follow-up. Longitudinal investigations of islet cell or insulin-autoantibody-positive healthy children are necessary to accurately determine the conversion rate from marker positivity to disease onset.Diabetologia 12/1992; 35(11):1068-73. · 6.49 Impact Factor