Two syntheses of the 16- and 17-membered DEF ring systems of chloropeptin and complestatin.
ABSTRACT [formula: see text] Two syntheses of a model system of the DEF ring system of complestatin and chloropeptin are described. The key step in both of these syntheses involves the formation of the biaryl linkage using a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction and a catalytic enantioselective ene reaction to form the 6-bromo-D-tryptophan. Additionally, ring contraction of the 17-membered DEF ring system of complestatin generates the 16-membered DEF ring system of chloropeptin in a biomimetic fashion.
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ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported the first total synthesis of chloropeptin II (1, complestatin), the more strained and challenging of the two naturally occurring chloropeptins. Central to the design of the approach and by virtue of a single-step, acid-catalyzed ring expansion rearrangement of chloropeptin II to chloropeptin I, the route also provided a total synthesis of chloropeptin I. Herein, we report a complementary and divergent oxidation of chloropeptin II (1, complestatin) to either complestatin A (2, neuroprotectin A) or complestatin B (3, neuroprotectin B), providing the first synthesis of the natural products and establishing their remaining stereochemical assignments. Key to the approach to complestatin A (2, neuroprotectin A) was the development of two different single-step indole oxidations (HCl-DMSO and NBS, THF-H(2)O) that avoid the rearrangement of chloropeptin II (1) to chloropeptin I (4), providing the 2-oxindole 2 in superb yields (93% and 82%). With a mechanistic understanding of features that impact the latter oxidation and an appreciation of the intrinsic reactivity of the chloropeptin II indole, its modification (NCS, THF-H(2)O; Cs(2)CO(3), DMF-H(2)O) provided a two-step, single-pot oxidation of chloropeptin II (1) to afford directly the 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole complestatin B (3, neuroprotectin B). Extensive studies conducted on the fully functionalized synthetic DEF ring system of chloropeptin II were key to the unambiguous assignment of the stereochemistry as well as the exploration and subsequent development of the mild oxidation conditions used in the synthesis of complestatin A and B.Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2011; 133(45):18495-502. · 10.68 Impact Factor
Article: Total synthesis of (+)-isatisine A.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-isatisine A has been accomplished commencing with a Lewis acid-catalyzed cyclization of homochiral (S)-vinylcyclopropane diester and N-tosylindole-2-carboxaldehyde to construct the tetrahydrofuran ring. A palladium-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation was utilized to obtain the dihydrofuran required for the subsequent dihydroxylation reaction to install the diol present on the tetrahydrofuran ring. The total synthesis was completed by an indole oxidation and electrophilic aromatic substitution sequence to construct isatisine A acetonide, which was then carried forward to the antipode of the natural product. The absolute configuration of the natural enantiomer (-)-isatisine A was determined to be C2(S), C9(R), C10(S), C12(R), and C13(R).The Journal of Organic Chemistry 10/2010; 75(20):6830-41. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vancomycin family of glycopeptide antibiotics has been inspiring research in the field of synthetic chemistry since the 1980s. Recent studies have moved away from the focus of total synthesis into new territory: the design and evaluation of novel compounds based on the natural products which exhibit improved antibacterial activity. Modern approaches to drug synthesis draw together investigations into the nature of the binding environment, and innovative synthetic methodologies which provide solutions to the challenging structural features and stereochemistry associated with this intriguing class of compounds. New analogues, derivatives and dimers of the natural products, as well as recent successes in the total synthesis of the complestatins are described in this tutorial review, covering literature from the last decade.Chemical Society Reviews 08/2011; 41(3):957-78. · 24.89 Impact Factor