The effectiveness of the Minnesota Model for treating adolescent drug abusers

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 05/2000; 95(4):601-12. DOI: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.2000.95460111.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The treatment outcome of drug-abusing adolescents treated with a 12-Step approach.
The study compares drug use outcome data at 6 and 12 months post-treatment among three groups of adolescents: those who completed treatment, those who did not and those on a waiting list. Also, among treatment completers, residential and outpatient samples were compared on outcome.
The treatment site is located in the Minneapolis/St Paul area of Minnesota.
Two hundred and forty-five drug clinic-referred adolescents (12-18 years old), all of whom met at least one DSM-III-R substance dependence disorder. One hundred and seventy-nine subjects received either complete or incomplete 12-Step, Minnesota Model treatment and 66 were waiting list subjects.
In addition to demographics and clinical background variables, measures included treatment involvement, treatment setting and drug use frequency at intake and follow-up.
Absolute and relative outcome analyses indicated that completing treatment was associated with far superior outcome compared to those who did not complete treatment or receive any at all. The percentage of treatment completers who reported either abstinence or a minor lapse for the 12 months following treatment was 53%, compared to 15 and 28% for the incompleter and waiting list groups, respectively.
Favorable treatment outcome for drug abuse was about two to three times more likely if treatment was completed. Also, there were no outcome differences between residential and outpatient groups. Alcohol was the most common drug used during the follow-up period, despite cannabis being the preferred drug at intake.

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    • "Another study by Winters et al46 investigated the treatment outcomes for drug-abusing adolescents who were attending 12-step facilitation. In this sample of 245 adolescents with at least one current dependence disorder on a psychoactive substance, the majority of participants were white (85%) and male (56%), with 28% having previously received substance abuse treatment, 52% being currently involved in the legal/juvenile justice system, 82% having a comorbid psychiatric disorder (eg, AD/HD, ODD/CD, and major depressive disorder were the most prevalent), and 66% having at least one parent with a history of substance use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence from the literature on treatment outcomes indicates that substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems varies widely. Treatments commonly used among this population are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), 12-step facilitation, multisystemic therapy (MST), psychoeducation (PE), and motivational interviewing (MI). This manuscript thoroughly and systematically reviews the available literature to determine which treatment is optimal for substance-abusing adolescents with conduct problems. Results suggest that although there are several evidence-based and empirically supported treatments, those that incorporate family-based intervention consistently provide the most positive treatment outcomes. In particular, this review further reveals that although many interventions have gained empirical support over the years, only one holds the prize as being the optimal treatment of choice for substance abuse treatment among adolescents with conduct problems.
    Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment 10/2012; 6(1):141-55. DOI:10.4137/SART.S10389
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    • "These results tie the scale to the social support literature and thus to social learning theory. From that theoretical perspective, the three peer focused factors: positive versus negative social behavior, drug use and post treatment peer association are consistent with Mason’s [19] discussion of the five network characteristics that are associated with adolescent substance use or non-use. This analysis expands Mason’s work in that it behaviorally defines those network characteristics and further demonstrates those behaviors association with adolescent substance use or non-use. "
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    • "Research to-date on AOD outcomes for adolescents suggests that participation in 12-step groups is associated with improved outcomes, similar to adults (Kelly and Meyers, 2007; Sussman, 2010; Winters et al., 2000). Kelly and Myers reviewed eight empirical studies on adolescent participation in 12-step programs (Kelly and Meyers, 2007) and found that greater 12-step participation was related to abstinence. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents who attend 12-step groups following alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment are more likely to remain abstinent and to avoid relapse post-treatment. We examined whether 12-step attendance is also associated with a corresponding reduction in health care use and costs. We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare changes in seven-year follow-up health care use and costs by changes in 12-step participation. Four Kaiser Permanente Northern California AOD treatment programs enrolled 403 adolescents, 13-18-years old, into a longitudinal cohort study upon AOD treatment entry. Participants self-reported 12-step meeting attendance at six-month, one-year, three-year, and five-year follow-up. Outcomes included counts of hospital inpatient days, emergency room (ER) visits, primary care visits, psychiatric visits, AOD treatment costs and total medical care costs. Each additional 12-step meeting attended was associated with an incremental medical cost reduction of 4.7% during seven-year follow-up. The medical cost offset was largely due to reductions in hospital inpatient days, psychiatric visits, and AOD treatment costs. We estimate total medical use cost savings at $145 per year (in 2010 U.S. dollars) per additional 12-step meeting attended. The findings suggest that 12-step participation conveys medical cost offsets for youth who undergo AOD treatment. Reduced costs may be related to improved AOD outcomes due to 12-step participation, improved general health due to changes in social network following 12-step participation, or better compliance to both AOD treatment and 12-step meetings.
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