Most mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are now referred to as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The tumors differ from ordinary leiomyomas and schwannomas in several respects: the GISTs typically express c-kit protein (CD117) and CD34, 30% to 50% of them are (often focally) positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and all are negative for desmin and S100 protein. Recently, mutations in the exon 11 of the c-kit gene have been identified and confirmed as a molecular genetic marker for the subset of GISTs. In this report, we describe a mesenchymal tumor removed from the pelvic cavity of a 52-year-old woman, who is alive without disease 36 months after the surgery. The 5-cm tumor was densely attached to the external aspect of the urinary bladder but was attached to small intestine by only filmy adhesions. The tumor grossly resembled a leiomyoma and was histologically composed of sheets of spindle cells with a dense collagenous background. The mitotic activity was low, less then 1 per 50 high-power fields. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin and positive for CD117 and CD34. Molecular genetic analysis of the exon 11 of the c-kit gene revealed a point mutation in the region commonly mutated in GISTs. This mutation substituted T for A in the codon 557, leading to the change of amino acid sequence (tryptophan for arginine) of the KIT protein. This case illustrates that tumors phenotypically and genotypically similar to GISTs may present in sites other than the tubular gastrointestinal tract.
"A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is another form of spindle cell tumor  that rarely occurs in the urinary bladder [9,10]. Most GISTs exhibit gain-of-function mutations in the KIT gene and express KIT protein [11,12]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are both spindle cell tumors, and occur rarely in the wall of the urinary bladder. In general, immunostaining allows differentiation of IMTs and GISTs. Most IMTs are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and negative for KIT, whereas most GISTs are ALK-negative and KIT-positive. Here, we describe a case of a spindle cell tumor in the wall of the urinary bladder. The spindle cells were positive for both ALK and KIT, and it was thus difficult to determine whether the tumor was an IMT or a GIST. We eventually diagnosed an IMT, because ALK gene rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Cytoplasmic staining for KIT and the absence of other GIST markers, including DOG1 and platelet-derived growth factor alpha, indicated that the tumor was not a GIST. Therefore, IMTs should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumors, even those that are KIT-positive.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 06/2014; 12(1):186. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-12-186 · 1.41 Impact Factor
"The concept of extragastrointestinal stromal tumors has been suggested for various tissues. A case of an extragastrointestinal KIT-positive stromal tumor in the urinary bladder has been reported . However, this tumor was found in the serosa of the urinary bladder and projected to the peritoneal cavity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report a case showing proliferation of KIT- and connexin 43-expressing mesenchymal cells of the urinary bladder. A 75-year-old woman had an ulcerated endophytic mass (size, approximately 2 × 2 cm) in the left posterolateral wall. She underwent transurethral resection and subsequent partial cystectomy. The suburothelial mass extended to the muscularis propria. The histopathological analysis revealed spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells that were loosely arranged with myxoid stroma and showed a focal compact fascicular arrangement. In the immunohistochemical analysis, these spindle cells were stained with specific antibodies to KIT and connexin 43. The patient is currently free of disease at 5 years after operation. The proliferating spindle cells in the present case might represent a phenotype of interstitial cells of the lamina propria.
Pathology Research International 12/2010; 2010:961325. DOI:10.4061/2010/961325
"In addition, it has been reported in recent years that identical lesions also occur in the mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum (2). The demonstration of KIT expression in these lesions has helped to validate their existence, particularly in exceptional sites such as the gallbladder (3, 4) or urinary bladder (5). Recent studies found that GISTs are tumors originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or primitive stem cells related to ICCs (6, 7). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the gallbladder are representative of an extremely rare group of tumors. We have encountered a patient with a malignant GIST of the gallbladder and presented it with a review of some articles. A 72-yr-old woman initially presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever and chills. Emergency cholecystectomy was performed under the impression of gallbladder empyema. Liver metastasis was found at 7 months postoperatively and the patient expired 9 months after the surgery. At the time of cholecystectomy, the gallbladder showed a necrotic serosal surface with an irregular thickened wall. A mass, 6 cm in length and 3 cm in width, encircled the whole wall of the neck and upper body of the gallbladder. Microscopic findings revealed frequent mitotic figures (more than 20/50 HPF) and tumor necrosis. Hyperchromatic, pleomorphic and spindle shaped neoplastic cells that were arranged in a pattern of short fascicles infiltrated the entire layer of the gallbladder. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for CD117 antigen (c-kit protein) and vimentin. They were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene were not found in this case. These findings were sufficient to provide enough clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical evidence in diagnosing our case as a malignant GIST.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 11/2004; 19(5):763-7. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2004.19.5.763 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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