Spindle cell tumor of urinary bladder serosa with phenotypic and genotypic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
ABSTRACT Most mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are now referred to as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The tumors differ from ordinary leiomyomas and schwannomas in several respects: the GISTs typically express c-kit protein (CD117) and CD34, 30% to 50% of them are (often focally) positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin, and all are negative for desmin and S100 protein. Recently, mutations in the exon 11 of the c-kit gene have been identified and confirmed as a molecular genetic marker for the subset of GISTs. In this report, we describe a mesenchymal tumor removed from the pelvic cavity of a 52-year-old woman, who is alive without disease 36 months after the surgery. The 5-cm tumor was densely attached to the external aspect of the urinary bladder but was attached to small intestine by only filmy adhesions. The tumor grossly resembled a leiomyoma and was histologically composed of sheets of spindle cells with a dense collagenous background. The mitotic activity was low, less then 1 per 50 high-power fields. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for alpha-smooth muscle actin and desmin and positive for CD117 and CD34. Molecular genetic analysis of the exon 11 of the c-kit gene revealed a point mutation in the region commonly mutated in GISTs. This mutation substituted T for A in the codon 557, leading to the change of amino acid sequence (tryptophan for arginine) of the KIT protein. This case illustrates that tumors phenotypically and genotypically similar to GISTs may present in sites other than the tubular gastrointestinal tract.
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ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors develop at any site but are most commonly reported in the stomach. They originate from the neoplastic transformation of the intestinal pacemaker cell, the interstitial cell of Cajal. GISTs strongly express the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT and have mutations in the KIT gene, most frequently in exon 11 encoding the intracellular juxtamembranous region. Expression of KIT is seen in almost all GISTs, regardless of the site of origin, histologic appearance, or biologic behavior, and is therefore regarded as one of the key diagnostic markers. Distinction from smooth muscle tumors, such as leiomyosarcomas, and other mesenchymal tumors is very important because of prognostic differences and therapeutic strategies. Predicting the biologic behavior of GISTs is often difficult by conventional pathologic examination; tumor size and mitotic rate are the most important prognostic indicators. The prognostic significance of KIT mutations is controversial and thus far has not been clearly linked with biologic behavior. KIT mutations are associated with tumor development, and cytogenetic aberrations are associated with tumor progression. The pathogenesis of GISTs involves a gain-of-function mutation in the KIT proto-oncogene, leading to ligand-independent constitutive activation of the KIT receptor. KIT-wild-type GISTs have shown mutually exclusive platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) mutation and activation. The use of imatinib mesylate (also known as Gleevec or STI-571) has greatly increased the therapeutic efficacy for this otherwise chemotherapy-resistant tumor. GISTs with very low levels of KIT expression may respond to imatinib mesylate therapy if the receptors are activated by specific mechanisms. KIT-activating mutations fall into two groups: the regulatory type and the enzymatic site type. The regulatory type of mutation is conserved at the imatinib binding site, whereas the enzymatic site mutation has a structurally changed drug-binding site, resulting in drug resistance. Resistance to the drug is the major cause of treatment failure in cancer therapy, emphasizing the need for researchers to understand KIT signaling pathways so as to identify new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the pathologic features of GISTs, recent advances in understanding their molecular and biologic features, and therapy with imatinib mesylate.Histology and histopathology 05/2004; 19(2):565-74. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In spite of multiple efforts a reliable risk-classification of human gastrointestinal stromal tumours could not be established in the past. So it was the aim of this study to investigate the predictive value of the immunohistochemical expression of several proteins and other factors in these malignancies. Focus was set on EGFR, P53 and P16. First, the adverse effect of big size and high mitotic rate could be shown significantly. For the parameter EGFR by contrast, no predictive value could be found. However, significantly could be shown the unfavorable effect of the expression of P53 in disease-free- as well as in disease-specific-survival. Concerning P16, a differentiation of the subgroup "high-risk" after consensus classification could be established. Patients with such high-risk-tumours and immunohistochemical expression of P16 had a much worse outcome in disease-free- and disease-specific-survival respectively. So P16 might be used as a predictor for "very-high-risk"-GIST.