The Biology of Chemokines and their Receptors

Pharmingen Inc., San Diego, California 92121-1111, USA.
Annual Review of Immunology (Impact Factor: 39.33). 02/2000; 18(1):217-42. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.18.1.217
Source: PubMed


During the last five years, the development of bioinformatics and EST databases has been primarily responsible for the identification of many new chemokines and chemokine receptors. The chemokine field has also received considerable attention since chemokine receptors were found to act as co-receptors for HIV infection (1). In addition, chemokines, along with adhesion molecules, are crucial during inflammatory responses for a timely recruitment of specific leukocyte subpopulations to sites of tissue damage. However, chemokines and their receptors are also important in dendritic cell maturation (2), B (3), and T (4) cell development, Th1 and Th2 responses, infections, angiogenesis, and tumor growth as well as metastasis (5). Furthermore, an increase in the number of chemokine/receptor transgenic and knock-out mice has helped to define the functions of chemokines in vivo. In this review we discuss some of the chemokines' biological effects in vivo and in vitro, described in the last few years, and the implications of these findings when considering chemokine receptors as therapeutic targets.

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    • "antigen-specific T cells. The latter, on the other hand, are expressed under the influence of pro-inflammatory factor, for example LPS, TNF-α, IL-1β) and further participate to upregulate the inflammatory response by attracting immune cells (e.g., macrophages, fibroblasts, T cells) to the site of inflammation (Rossi and Zlotnik, 2000; Zlotnik and Yoshie, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and disabling conditions of increasing public health relevance. Much recent research has focused on the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders; however the related family of immune proteins designated chemokines has been relatively neglected. Chemokines were originally identified as having chemotactic function on immune cells, however recent evidence has begun to elucidate novel, brain-specific functions of these proteins of relevance to the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. A systematic review of both human and animal literature in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases was undertaken. After application of all inclusion and exclusion criteria, 157 references were remained for the review. Some early mechanistic evidence does associate select chemokines with the neurobiological processes, including neurogenesis, modulation of the neuroinflammatory response, regulation of the HPA axis, and modulation of neurotransmitter systems. This early evidence however does not clearly demonstrate any specificity for a certain psychiatric disorder, but is primarily relevant to mechanisms which are shared across disorders. Notable exceptions include CCL11 which has recently been shown to impair hippocampal function in aging - of distinct relevance to Alzheimer’s disease and depression in the elderly, and prenatal exposure to CXCL8 that may disrupt early neurodevelopmental periods predisposing to schizophrenia. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL7, CCL8, CCL12, CCL13, have been shown to drive chemotaxis of pro-inflammatory cells to the inflamed or injured CNS. Likewise, CX3CL has been implicated in promoting glial cells activation, proinflammatory cytokines secretion, expression of ICAM-1 and recruitment of CD4+ T-cells into the CNS during neuroinflammatory processes. With further translational research, chemokines may present novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in psychiatric disorders.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 10/2015; 9:357. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2015.00357 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), known as CC chemo- kine-2 (CCL2) play a critical role in this process. These chemokines recruit monocytes that differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) which subsequently release substances needed for tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and metastasis [1] [2] [3]. TAMs can also directly release more TNFa, an inflammatory cytokine [4], furthering the processes of production/release of CCL2 in diverse tumor tissue.[5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: TNFα receptors are constitutively overexpressed in tumor cells, correlating to sustain elevated NFκB and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) expression. The elevation of CCL2 evokes aggressive forms of malignant tumors marked by tumor associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment, cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. Previously, we have shown that the organo-sulfur compound diallyl disulfide (DADS) found in garlic (Allium sativum) attenuates TNFα induced CCL2 production in MDA-MB-231 cells. In the current study, we explored the signaling pathways responsible for DADS suppressive effect on TNFα mediated CCL2 release using PCR Arrays, RT-PCR and western blots. The data in this study show that TNFα initiates a rise in NFκB mRNA, which is not reversed by DADS. However, TNFα induced heightened expression of IKKε and phosphorylated ERK. The expression of these proteins corresponds to increased CCL2 release that can be attenuated by DADS. CCL2 induction by TNFα was also lessened by inhibitors of p38 (SB202190) and MEK (U0126) but not JNK (SP 600125), all of which were suppressed by DADS. In conclusion, the obtained results indicate that DADS down regulates TNFα invoked CCL2 production primarily through reduction of IKKε and phosphorylated-ERK, thereby impairing MAPK/ERK, and NFκB pathway signaling. Future research will be required to evaluate the effects of DADS on the function and expression of TNFα surface receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Cytokine 06/2015; 75(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2014.12.007 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    • "The other CXC chemokine-2, CXCL2 has been shown to be associated with immune-regulatory and inflammatory processes [18]. Both CXCL1 and CXCL2 are ELR + CXC chemokine subtype [120] [122]. Both of these chemokines mediate their effects through binding to the receptor CXCR2 [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been growing attention to the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer growth, metastasis and emergence of chemotherapy resistance. Stromal and tumor cells make up the TME and interact with each other through a complex cross-talk manner. This interaction is facilitated by a variety of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and S100 proteins. In this review, we focus on chemokines and their cognate receptors in regulating the tumorigenic process. Chemokines are cytokines that have chemotactic potential. Chemokine receptors are expressed on tumor cells and stromal cells. Chemokines and their cognate receptors modulate tumor growth and metastasis in a paracrine and autocrine manner. They play a major role in the modulation of stromal cell recruitment, angiogenic potential, cancer cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, invasion and metastasis to distant sites. In addition, a new class of calcium binding family S100 proteins has getting attention as they play significant roles in tumor progression and metastasis by modulating TME. Here, we highlight recent developments regarding the inflammatory chemokine/S100 proteins systems in the TME. We also focus on how chemokines/S100 proteins, through their role in the TME, modulate cancer cell ability to grow, proliferate, invade and metastasize to different organs. This review highlights the possibility of using the chemokine/chemokine receptor axis as a promising strategy in cancer therapy, the current difficulties in achieving this goal, and how it could be overcome for successful future therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Cancer letters 05/2015; 365(1). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.05.002 · 5.62 Impact Factor
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