Olanzapine increases allopregnanolone in the rat cerebral cortex.
ABSTRACT The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one) has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties, potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channel function with 20-fold higher potency than benzodiazepines. Behavioral studies demonstrate that olanzapine has anxiolyticlike properties in animals, but the mechanism responsible for these effects is not clear. We examined the effect of acute olanzapine administration on cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and its relationship to serum progesterone and corticosterone levels in rats.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to intraperitoneal (IP) saline injection for 5 days. On the day of the experiment, rats were injected with olanzapine (0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg IP, 10-11 rats per condition). Rats were sacrificed 1 hour later, and cerebral cortical allopregnanolone levels and serum progesterone and corticosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay.
Olanzapine increases cerebral cortical allopregnanolone up to fourfold, depending on dose. Positive correlations were observed between cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and serum progesterone levels and between cerebral cortical allopregnanolone and serum corticosterone levels.
Olanzapine-induced increases in the potent GABA(A) receptor modulator allopregnanolone may alter GABAergic neurotransmission, possibly contributing to antipsychotic efficacy. If allopregnanolone alterations are linked to psychotic symptom relief, neurosteroids may represent molecules for pharmacologic intervention.
SourceAvailable from: Michael S. Ritsner[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative DHEA-S are neurosteroids, produced in the brain, and neuroactive steroids, produced in the adrenals and affecting the brain. We compared the ratios of serum cortisol/DHEA or DHEA-S in schizophrenia patients with normal subjects, and determined the correlation of these ratios with psychopathology and distress. Early morning plasma concentrations of DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunassay in 40 medicated schizophrenia inpatients, and 15 healthy subjects with similar age and sex distribution. Subjects were assessed for psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), anxiety, anger, emotional and somatic distress levels. Schizophrenia inpatients demonstrated significantly higher levels of state and trait anxiety, anger expression index, emotional and somatic self-reported distress scores. Cortisol/DHEA and cortisol/DHEA-S ratios were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in healthy comparison subjects. Both ratios correlated positively with age and duration of illness; cortisol/DHEA-S ratio also showed positive association with age of illness onset. When age, illness duration and age of onset were controlled, cortisol/DHEA-S ratio significantly correlated with severity of depression (MADRS, r=0.33, p=0.048), state and trait anxiety (r=0.43, p=0.008 and r=0.40, p=0.014, respectively), trait anger (r=0.41, p=0.012), angry temperament (r=0.46, p=0.004), anger expression index (r=0.36, p=0.033), and hostility (r=0.42, p=0.010). No significant association was found between these ratios and severity of psychopathology, and type or dosage of antipsychotic agents. Thus, elevated cortisol/DHEA and/or cortisol/DHEA-S ratios in schizophrenia patients are positively associated with higher scores for anxiety and anger, depression and hostility, age and age of onset/duration of illness, but are independent of severity of psychopathology (PANSS) and antipsychotic treatment.European Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2004; 14(4):267-273. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(03)00187-1 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor active neurosteroid, elicits hyperphagic response in rodents. Since GABA-A receptors are present on the peptidergic neurons in the hypothalamus, we were interested in finding out if ALLO and neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) interact and influence feeding behavior. While subcutaneous ALLO treatment, for a period of seven days produced a significant increase in food intake and body weight, pretreatment with subthreshold dose of CART (intracerebroventricular) attenuated both the effects. On the other hand, subcutaneous administration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; GABA-A inhibitor neurosteroid) for a period of seven days resulted in a significant reduction in food intake and body weight. These effects of DHEAS were potentiated by intracerebroventricular pretreatment with subeffective dose of CART. The brains of ALLO-treated rats were processed for the immunohistochemical analysis of CART immunoreactive elements. ALLO treatment resulted in a significant reduction in CART immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic arcuate and paraventricular nuclei, lateral hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens shell. The results of the present study suggest that ALLO and CART might interact in the brain, and influence food intake and body weight. However, further investigations are needed to clarify the precise mechanisms by which ALLO modulate feeding behavior.Brain research 08/2013; 1532. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.07.055 · 2.83 Impact Factor