Prevalence of depression and its treatment in an elderly population: The Cache County study
ABSTRACT Previous estimates of the prevalence of geriatric depression have varied. There are few large population-based studies; most of these focused on individuals younger than 80 years. No US studies have been published since the advent of the newer antidepressant agents.
In 1995 through 1996, as part of a large population study, we examined the current and lifetime prevalence of depressive disorders in 4,559 nondemented individuals aged 65 to 100 years. This sample represented 90% of the elderly population of Cache County, Utah. Using a modified version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, we ascertained past and present DSM-IV major depression, dysthymia, and subclinical depressive disorders. Medication use was determined through a structured interview and a "medicine chest inventory."
Point prevalence of major depression was estimated at 4.4% in women and 2.7% in men (P= .003). Other depressive syndromes were surprisingly uncommon (combined point prevalence, 1.6%). Among subjects with current major depression, 35.7% were taking an antidepressant (mostly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and 27.4% a sedative/hypnotic. The current prevalence of major depression did not change appreciably with age. Estimated lifetime prevalence of major depression was 20.4% in women and 9.6% in men (P<.001), decreasing with age.
These estimates for prevalence of major depression are higher than those reported previously in North American studies. Treatment with antidepressants was more common than reported previously, but was still lacking in most individuals with major depression. The prevalence of subsyndromal depressive symptoms was low, possibly because of unusual characteristics of the population.
- SourceAvailable from: Sarah Szymkowicz
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Based on data from the NCS-R , the median AAO for MDD is 32 years, with a wide distribution and an interquartile range (the number of years between the 25th and 75th percentiles of the AAO) of 25 years (range 19–44). However, clinically significant depressive symptoms in older adults are viewed as a separate diagnostic entity also called late life depression when the onset is between 50 and 60     . Previous studies have shown that early-onset MDD was associated with longer duration of illness, more recurrence, higher suicidality, greater symptom severity and more axis I comorbidity compared to late-onset MDD   . "
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the distributions of the age at onset (AAO) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using admixture analysis and to determine the clinical differences between subgroups with different AAO. Participants were administered the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to obtain clinical data. Admixture analysis was performed using the STATA module DENORMIX to identify subgroups characterized by differences in AAO. The best fit model was the three-component model with the following means, standard deviations and proportions: 14.60 (3.75) years (49.1%), 29.15 (6.75) years (34.1%) and 46.96 (6.06) years (16.8%) (χ(2)=3.64, 2 df, P=.162). The three subgroups were divided by AAO of 22 and 40. After controlling for duration of illness, there were no significant differences between the three AAO subgroups in terms of gender and psychiatric family history. However, the early-onset subgroup was significantly more likely to report being single compared to the intermediate- and late-onset groups. The proportion of individuals meeting criteria for lifetime comorbid panic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder did not differ significantly between the AAO groups. However, the early-onset group reported a higher incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (5.1% vs. 1.7% and 1.2%, P=.086), although this was not statistically significant. Our study identified three characteristically different AAO subgroups in individuals suffering from MDD. The subgroups may reflect different underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved.General hospital psychiatry 08/2012; 34(6):686-91. DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2012.06.010 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Based on a joint study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health and the World Health Organization, depression was the leading cause of disability in the world (measured by years of life lived with disability) in 1990  and, in 2020, is expected to be the world's second leading cause of disability, surpassed only by cardiovascular disease . The lifetime prevalence of depression in the USA is 20% in women and 10% in men . Depression is widespread in patients with chronic disabling medical illness. "
ABSTRACT: This paper (1) reviews the physical and religious barriers to CBT that disabled medically ill-depressed patients face, (2) discusses research on the relationship between religion and depression-induced physiological changes, (3) describes an ongoing randomized clinical trial of religious versus secular CBT in chronically ill patients with mild-to-moderate major depression designed to (a) overcome physical and religious barriers to CBT and (b) compare the efficacy of religious versus secular CBT in relieving depression and improving immune and endocrine functions, and (4) presents preliminary results that illustrate the technical difficulties that have been encountered in implementing this trial. CBT is being delivered remotely via instant messaging, telephone, or Skype, and Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Hindu versions of religious CBT are being developed. The preliminary results described here are particular to the technologies employed in this study and are not results from the CBT clinical trial whose findings will be published in the future after the study ends and data are analyzed. The ultimate goal is to determine if a psychotherapy delivered remotely that integrates patients' religious resources improves depression more quickly than a therapy that ignores them, and whether religious CBT is more effective than conventional CBT in reversing depression-induced physiological changes.Depression research and treatment 06/2012; 2012(6):460419. DOI:10.1155/2012/460419
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Regarding age, in other studies the current prevalence of major depression did not change appreciably with age (Steffens, et al., 2000). Depressive symptoms are more frequent among the oldest elderly, but the higher frequency is explained by factors associated with aging, such as a higher proportion of women, more physical disability, more cognitive impairment, and lower socioeconomic status, when these factors are controlled, there is no relationship between depressive symptoms and age (Blazer, Burchett, Service, and George, 1991). "
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of disability in Basic Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL and IADL, respectively), as well as associated factors in the Mexican community-dwelling elderly population. This is a cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco (Mexico). A total of 2553 persons were assessed regarding their functional and health conditions. The ADL and IADL were classified as dependent and non-dependent, and crude and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Mean age of participants was 71.6±8.7, 61.2% were women. A disability prevalence of 9.6% was found to perform ADL and of 31.5% for the IADL, 14.3% had cognitive impairment and 30.9% depression. Risk factors were found for dependence: being a woman, being ≥75 years old, low education level, having at least one chronic disease, cognitive impairment, depression, previous history of disability, and having been a lifelong housewife. Functional difficulties are common in Mexican elderly population. These data show key variables for functional disability risk. A better understanding of functional capabilities, as well as of risk factors older adults face every day provide us with a guide to devise a prevention plan, to implement adequate interventions, or to provide appropriate care.Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 03/2012; 54(3):e271-8. DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2012.02.010 · 1.53 Impact Factor