Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 07/2000; 164(12):6538-42. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.164.12.6538
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HIV-1 protein Tat is neurotoxic and increases macrophage and microglia production of TNF-alpha, a cytopathic cytokine linked to the neuropathogenesis of HIV dementia. Others have shown that intracellular calcium regulates TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and we have shown that Tat releases calcium from inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor-regulated stores in neurons and astrocytes. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that Tat-induced TNF-alpha production was dependent on the release of intracellular calcium from IP3-regulated calcium stores in primary macrophages. We found that Tat transiently and dose-dependently increased levels of intracellular calcium and that this increase was blocked by xestospongin C, pertussis toxin, and by phospholipase C and type 1 protein kinase C inhibitors but not by protein kinase A or phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Xestospongin C, BAPTA-AM, U73122, and bisindolylmalemide significantly inhibited Tat-induced TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that in macrophages, Tat-induced release of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of nonconventional PKC isoforms play an important role in Tat-induced TNF-alpha production.

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    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca(2+) store not only sets up cytosolic Ca(2+) signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca(2+) depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca(2+) may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca(2+) causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca(2+) depletion.
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infection causes, with increasing prevalence, neurological disorders characterized in part by neuronal cell death. The HIV-1 protein Tat has been shown to be directly and indirectly neurotoxic. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a non-neurotoxic epitope of Tat can, through actions on immune cells, increase neuronal cell death. Tat(1-72) and a mutant Tat(1-72) lacking the neurotoxic epitope (Tat(Delta31-61)) concentration-dependently and markedly increased TNF-alpha production in macrophage-like differentiated human U937 and THP-1 cells, in mouse peritoneal macrophages and in mouse brain microglia. Tat(1-72) was but Tat(Delta31-61) was not neurotoxic when applied directly to neurons. Supernatants from U937 cells treated with either Tat(1-72) or Tat(Delta31-61) were neurotoxic and their immunoneutralization with an anti-TNF-alpha antibody decreased Tat(1-72)- and Tat(Delta31-61)-induced neurotoxicity. Together, these results demonstrate that the neurotoxic epitope of Tat(1-72) is different from the epitope that is indirectly neurotoxic following production of TNF-alpha from immune cells, and suggest that therapeutic interventions against TNF-alpha might be beneficial against HIV-1 associated neurological disorders.
    Neurobiology of Disease 07/2007; 26(3):661-70. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2007.03.004 · 5.20 Impact Factor


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