The relationship between anxiety levels and outcome of cocaine abuse treatment.
ABSTRACT Although a number of studies have examined the comorbidity of anxiety disorders and substance use disorders, much less is known about the impact of anxiety symptoms on substance use and on substance abuse treatment outcome. In the current study, we examined how self-reported anxiety levels, as measured by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were related to cocaine use variables and patterns following substance abuse treatment. There were 108 patients in substance abuse treatment who met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for cocaine abuse or dependence who completed an assessment battery at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. State anxiety scores significantly declined from pre- to posttreatment and remained stable into the 3-month follow-up period regardless of relapse status. Trait anxiety was correlated positively with negative consequences due to cocaine use and negatively correlated with days in treatment. State and trait anxiety both were correlated positively with the Alcohol Composite Index of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). These findings suggest that elevated anxiety scores at pretreatment subside with time, do not require clinical management of associated anxiety symptoms, and may be a temporary by-product of experiencing negative consequences due to recent cocaine use.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the issues that need to be addressed to optimally use functional neuroimaging as a clinical tool to predict outcomes in substance use disorders. First, the importance of recognizing the clinical heterogeneity of the substance use disorders population is highlighted. We also emphasize that empirical and theoretical analyses support the idea that the courses of substance use disorders are relatively independent of the types of substance being used. Second, various approaches to the measurement and characterization of the longitudinal courses of substance use disorders are summarized. Third, predictors of outcomes are reviewed and their limitations are discussed. Within this context, we describe aspects of our work that focus on using functional magnetic resonance imaging to predict outcomes. Fourth, we discuss future directions, critical experiments, and the utility of functional neuroimaging as a clinical tool.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11/2008; 1141:270-83. · 3.15 Impact Factor