Selective attention to emotional stimuli in a verbal go/no-go task: an fMRI study
ABSTRACT Tasks requiring subjects to attend emotional attributes of words have been used to study mood-congruent information processing biases in anxiety and affective disorders. In this study we adapted an emotional go/no-go task, for use with fMRI to assess the neural substrates of focusing on emotional attributes of words in normal subjects. The key findings were that responding to targets defined on the basis of meaning of words compared to targets defined on the basis of perceptual features was associated with response in inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate. Further, selecting emotional targets, whether happy or sad, was associated with enhanced response in the subgenual cingulate, while happy targets elicited enhanced neural response in ventral anterior cingulate. These findings reaffirm the importance of medial prefrontal regions in normal emotional processing.
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral adaptation and cognitive control are crucial for goal-reaching behaviors. Every creature is ubiquitously faced with choices between behavioral alternatives. Common sense suggests that errors are an important source of information in the regulation of such processes. Several theories exist regarding cognitive control and the processing of undesired outcomes. However, most of these models focus on the consequences of an error, and less attention has been paid to the mechanisms that underlie the commissioning of an error. In this article, we present an integrative review of neuro-cognitive models that detail the determinants of the occurrence of response errors. The factors that may determine the likelihood of committing errors are likely related to the stability of task-representations in prefrontal networks, attentional selection mechanisms and mechanisms of action selection in basal ganglia circuits. An important conclusion is that the likelihood of committing an error is not stable over time but rather changes depending on the interplay of different functional neuro-anatomical and neuro-biological systems. We describe factors that might determine the time-course of cognitive control and the need to adapt behavior following response errors. Finally, we outline the mechanisms that may proof useful for predicting the outcomes of cognitive control and the emergence of response errors in future research.Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 02/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00050 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Total sleep deprivation (TSD) may induce fatigue, neurocognitive slowing and mood changes, which are partly compensated by stress regulating brain systems, resulting in altered dopamine and cortisol levels in order to stay awake if needed. These systems, however, have never been studied in concert. At baseline, after a regular night of sleep, and the next morning after TSD, 12 healthy subjects performed a semantic affective classification functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, followed by a [11C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Saliva cortisol levels were acquired at 7 time points during both days. Affective symptoms were measured using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and visual analogue scales. After TSD, perceived energy levels, concentration, and speed of thought decreased significantly, whereas mood did not. During fMRI, response speed decreased for neutral words and positive targets, and accuracy decreased trendwise for neutral words and for positive targets with a negative distracter. Following TSD, processing of positive words was associated with increased left dorsolateral prefrontal activation. Processing of emotional words in general was associated with increased insular activity, whereas contrasting positive vs. negative words showed subthreshold increased activation in the (para)hippocampal area. Cortisol secretion was significantly lower after TSD. Decreased voxel-by-voxel [11C]raclopride binding potential (BPND) was observed in left caudate. TSD induces widespread cognitive, neurophysiologic and endocrine changes in healthy adults, characterized by reduced cognitive functioning, despite increased regional brain activity. The blunted HPA-axis response together with altered [11C]raclopride binding in the basal ganglia indicate that sustained wakefulness requires involvement of additional adaptive biological systems.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116906. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116906 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resumen Este estudio, realizado con adolescentes españoles (N= 78), examinó la relación entre una medida subjetiva y otra conductual del componente motor de la impulsividad. Utilizamos una " tarea responder/no responder " emocional para investigar la modulación emocional asociada con imágenes de diferente valencia afectiva y su relación con el nivel de impulsividad de los adolescentes. También evaluamos variables que podrían verse afectadas por el nivel de impulsividad (autocontrol y sinceridad). Los resultados muestran correlaciones significativas entre las medidas subjetivas y conductuales de la impulsividad, indicando que los adolescentes fueron capaces de evaluarse adecuadamente en esta variable. También obtuvimos una correlación positiva entre impulsividad y sinceridad, así como una relación inversa entre la impulsividad y el autocontrol. Además, observamos modulación emocional en términos tanto de precisión (proporción de aciertos y falsas alarmas) como de velocidad de procesamiento (tiempos de reacción) de las imágenes afectivas. La modulación emocional no se vio afectada por el nivel de impulsividad de los adolescentes, posiblemente por la relación que presentan algunos componentes de la impulsividad con la función ejecutiva en esta etapa evolutiva. PALABRAS CLAVE: impulsividad, inhibición conductual, tarea responder/no responder emocional, adolescencia. Abstract In this study we explored the relationship between subjective and objective measures of motor impulsivity in Spanish adolescents (N= 78). We used an emotional Go/No-Go task to investigate the potential modulation of behavioral inhibition by the affective valence of the stimuli, and whether such modulation was influenced by the adolescent's level of impulsivity. Variables related to level La investigación descrita en el presente trabajo ha sido financiada por el Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (proyecto: DEP2009-13394).Behavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual 01/2013; 21:393-409. · 0.83 Impact Factor