Tasks requiring subjects to attend emotional attributes of words have been used to study mood-congruent information processing biases in anxiety and affective disorders. In this study we adapted an emotional go/no-go task, for use with fMRI to assess the neural substrates of focusing on emotional attributes of words in normal subjects. The key findings were that responding to targets defined on the basis of meaning of words compared to targets defined on the basis of perceptual features was associated with response in inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate. Further, selecting emotional targets, whether happy or sad, was associated with enhanced response in the subgenual cingulate, while happy targets elicited enhanced neural response in ventral anterior cingulate. These findings reaffirm the importance of medial prefrontal regions in normal emotional processing.
"The functions of the ACC range from very basic (homeostatic ) to more complex social-cognitive functions. In general, one can assume that the core function of the ACC is to establish the mobilization required to cope with cognitive and, as recently described, emotional and social demands (Mayberg et al., 1999; Elliott et al., 2000; Paus, 2001; Phillips et al., 2003) to achieve cognitive control (Koban and Pourtois, 2014). Thus, the ACC plays a role in the processing of tasks that require increasing cognitive effort and control and the management of responses when faced with conflicting demands (Luu et al., 2003; Fan et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behavioral adaptation and cognitive control are crucial for goal-reaching behaviors. Every creature is ubiquitously faced with choices between behavioral alternatives. Common sense suggests that errors are an important source of information in the regulation of such processes. Several theories exist regarding cognitive control and the processing of undesired outcomes. However, most of these models focus on the consequences of an error, and less attention has been paid to the mechanisms that underlie the commissioning of an error. In this article, we present an integrative review of neuro-cognitive models that detail the determinants of the occurrence of response errors. The factors that may determine the likelihood of committing errors are likely related to the stability of task-representations in prefrontal networks, attentional selection mechanisms and mechanisms of action selection in basal ganglia circuits. An important conclusion is that the likelihood of committing an error is not stable over time but rather changes depending on the interplay of different functional neuro-anatomical and neuro-biological systems. We describe factors that might determine the time-course of cognitive control and the need to adapt behavior following response errors. Finally, we outline the mechanisms that may proof useful for predicting the outcomes of cognitive control and the emergence of response errors in future research.
"Furthermore, the GNG task has been conducted under different experimental manipulations in order to characterize the cognitive processes underlying response inhibition . These studies have focused mainly on the effects of cueing –, trial sequence effect and expectation , , Go/Nogo trial probabilities –, salience of stimuli , , perceptual similarity of stimuli –, and stimulus and response modalities –. However, despite the amount of evidence generated, debate is still open about the automatic or controlled nature of response inhibition  and about the contribution of motor and attentional systems to RI . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capacity to inhibit prepotent and automatic responses is crucial for proper cognitive and social development, and inhibitory impairments have been considered to be key for some neuropsychiatric conditions. One of the most used paradigms to analyze inhibitory processes is the Go-Nogo task (GNG). This task has been widely used in psychophysical and cognitive EEG studies, and more recently in paradigms using fMRI. However, a technical limitation is that the time resolution of fMRI is poorer than that of the EEG technique. In order to compensate for these temporal constraints, it has become common practice in the fMRI field to use longer inter-stimulus intervals (ISI) than those used in EEG protocols. Despite the noticeable temporal differences between these two techniques, it is currently assumed that both approaches assess similar inhibitory processes. We performed an EEG study using a GNG task with both short ISI (fast-condition, FC, as in EEG protocols) and long ISI (slow-condition, SC, as in fMRI protocols). We found that in the FC there was a stronger Nogo-N2 effect than in the SC. Moreover, in the FC, but not in the SC, the number of preceding Go trials correlated positively with the Nogo-P3 amplitude and with the Go trial reaction time; and negatively with commission errors. In addition, we found significant topographical differences for the Go-P3 elicited in FC and SC, which is interpreted in terms of different neurotransmitter dynamics. Taken together, our results provide evidence that frequency of stimulus presentation in the GNG task strongly modulates the behavioral response and the evoked EEG activity. Therefore, it is likely that short-ISI EEG protocols and long-ISI fMRI protocols do not assess equivalent inhibitory processes.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87232. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087232 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The aim of the current study was to test whether circulating testosterone levels were correlated with brain activation during cognitive-emotional processing in men with schizophrenia. We used an emotional go/no-go paradigm, which activates dorsal prefrontal executive control brain regions in addition to insular and limbic cortex associated with emotion regulation , . Brain activation during this task was previously shown to be sensitive to sex steroid modulation of prefrontal and cingulate activity in healthy adults . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77496. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077496 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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