Modified Extrafascial Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy Technique Decreases Frequency of Positive Surgical Margins in T2 Cancers 3

Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, United States
European Urology (Impact Factor: 13.94). 07/2000; 38(1):64-73. DOI: 10.1159/000020254
Source: PubMed


In an effort to decrease the frequency of postoperative positive surgical margins (+SM), a modified extrafascial radical prostatectomy technique was developed and evaluated.
402 consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens removed for clinical stage T2 cancers from 1987 to 1994 were histologically examined prospectively for tumor volume, extraprostatic extension and +SM. Surgical technique modification was introduced in 1990. We compared the histologic status and biological outcome of the prostatectomy cases in 1987-1989 (n = 166) to those treated from 1990 to 1994 (n = 236).
The two series were comparable in (1) clinical stage and preoperative (PSA, (2) tumor volume, grade and location, and (3) capsular penetration, seminal vesicle and lymph node status. +SM fell from 32 to 25% overall, but for 146 (36%) prostates with a tumor volume <2 cm(3), +SM fell from 21 to 6% which was statistically significant. Outcome measured by biological progression showed a decrease from 33% for +SM to 13% for -SM for cases with a tumor volume <2 cm(3). For cancer volumes >2 cm(3), the incidence of +SM did not vary significantly. We describe the anatomic details necessary for exposure of periprostatic fascias and extrafascial dissection at (1) the prostatourethral junction which ensures wide excision of the anterior and apical aspect of the prostate, (2) the posterior and apical area (development of the prerectal space), lateral and posterior areas at the base of the prostate which ensures wide excision of the rectoprostatic fascia (Denonvilliers's fascia) and lateral prostatic fascia.
Differences in surgical technique probably accounted for the significant decrease in +SM for those T2 cancers with volumes < or =2 cm(3) which represents 36% of the T2 cancers in our series. Recent screening with PSA (T1c cancers) increases the incidence of these cancers < or =2cm(3). This modified uni- or bilateral anatomic extrafascial prostatectomy with improved +SM and biological progression rates for T2 cases should be evaluated for T1c cases.

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