Article

The chemokine fractalkine inhibits Fas-mediated cell death of brain microglia.

Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2000; 165(1):397-403. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.165.1.397
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fractalkine is a CX3C-family chemokine, highly and constitutively expressed on the neuronal cell surface, for which a clear CNS physiological function has yet to be determined. Its cognate receptor, CX3CR-1, is constitutively expressed on microglia, the brain-resident macrophages; however, these cells do not express fractalkine. We now show that treatment of microglia with fractalkine maintains cell survival and inhibits Fas ligand-induced cell death in vitro. Biochemical characterization indicates that this occurs via mechanisms that may include 1) activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B pathway, resulting in phosphorylation and blockade of the proapoptotic functions of BAD; 2) up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL; and 3) inhibition of the cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist (BID). The observation that fractalkine serves as a survival factor for primary microglia in part by modulating the protein levels and the phosphorylation status of Bcl-2 family proteins reveals a novel physiological role for chemokines. These results, therefore, suggest that the interaction between fractalkine and CX3CR-1 may play an important role in promoting and preserving microglial cell survival in the CNS.

0 Followers
 · 
80 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Microglia/macrophages are found within human GBM where they likely promote tumor progression. We report that CCL5, CCR1, and CCR5 are expressed in glioblastoma. Individual deletion of CCR1 or CCR5 had little to no effect on survival of tumor bearing mice, or numbers of glioblastoma-infiltrated microglia/macrophages or lymphocytes. CCL5 promoted in vitro migration of wild type, CCR1- or CCR5-deficient microglia/macrophages that was blocked by the dual CCR1/CCR5 antagonist, Met-CCL5. These data suggest that CCL5 functions within the glioblastoma microenvironment through CCR1 and CCR5 in a redundant manner.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 03/2012; 246(1-2):10-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2012.02.009 · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). With the exception of a few rare familial forms of the disease, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PD are unknown. Inflammation is a common finding in the PD brain, but due to the limitation of postmortem analysis its relationship to disease progression cannot be established. However, studies using the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD have also identified inflammatory responses in the nigrostriatal pathway that precede neuronal degeneration in the SNpc. To assess the pathological relevance of these inflammatory responses and to identify candidate genes that might contribute to neuronal vulnerability, we used quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of 11 cytokine and chemokine encoding genes in the striatum of MPTP-sensitive (C57BL/6J) and MPTP-insensitive (Swiss Webster, SWR) mice following administration of MPTP. The mRNA levels of all 11 genes changed following MPTP treatment, indicating the presence of inflammatory responses in both strains. Furthermore, of the 11 genes examined only 3, interleukin 6 (Il-6), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha/CC chemokine ligand 3 (Mip-1alpha/Ccl3) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta/CC chemokine ligand 4 (Mip-1beta/Ccl4), were differentially regulated between C57BL/6J and SWR mice. In both mouse strains, the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (Mcp-1/Ccl2) mRNA was the first to increase following MPTP administration, and might represent a key initiating component of the inflammatory response. Using Mcp-1/Ccl2 knockout mice backcrossed onto a C57BL/6J background we found that MPTP-stimulated Mip-1alpha/Ccl3 and Mip-1beta/Ccl4 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the knockout mice; suggesting that Mcp-1/Ccl2 contributes to MPTP-enhanced expression of Mip-1alpha/Ccl3 and Mip-1beta/Ccl4. However, stereological analysis of SNpc neuronal loss in Mcp-1/Ccl2 knockout and wild-type mice showed no differences. These findings suggest that it is the ability of dopaminergic SNpc neurons to survive an inflammatory insult, rather than genetically determined differences in the inflammatory response itself, that underlie the molecular basis of MPTP resistance.
    Neuroscience 04/2007; 145(2):654-68. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.12.030 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulatory factor X4 variant transcript 3 (Rfx4_v3) gene disruption in mice demonstrated that interruption of a single allele (heterozygous, +/-) prevented formation of the subcommissural organ, resulting in congenital hydrocephalus, while interruption of two alleles (homozygous, -/-) caused fatal failure of dorsal midline brain structure formation. To identify potential target genes for RFX4_v3, we used microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in Rfx4_v3-deficient mouse brains at embryonic day 10.5, before gross structural changes were apparent. Of 109 differentially expressed transcripts, 24 were chosen for validation and 22 were confirmed by real-time PCR. Many validated genes encoded critical proteins involved in brain morphogenesis, such as the signaling components in the Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Cx3cl1, a CX3C-type chemokine gene that is highly expressed in brain, was down-regulated in the Rfx4_v3-null mice. Both human and mouse Cx3cl1 proximal promoters contained highly conserved X-boxes, known cis-acting elements for RFX protein binding. Using the Cx3cl1 promoter as an example of a target gene, we demonstrated direct binding of RFX4_v3 to the Cx3cl1 promoter, and trans-acting activity of RFX4_v3 protein to stimulate gene expression. These data suggest that RFX4_v3 may act upstream of critical signaling pathways in the process of brain development.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2006; 98(3):860-75. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03930.x · 4.24 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from