Acetyl-boswellic acids are novel catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerases I and IIalpha.
ABSTRACT Acetyl-boswellic acids (acetyl-BA) are pentacyclic triterpenes derived from the gum resin of frankincense. We have previously shown that these compounds are effective cytotoxic agents, acting through a mechanism that appears to involve the inhibition of topoisomerase activity. We have now investigated the mechanism of action of acetyl-BA and show that these compounds are more potent inhibitors of human topoisomerases I and IIalpha than camptothecin, and amsacrine or etoposide, respectively. Our data demonstrate that acetyl-BA and, to a lesser extent, some other pentacyclic triterpenes, such as betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid, inhibit topoisomerases I and IIalpha through a mechanism that does not involve stabilization of the cleavable complex or the intercalation of DNA. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that topoisomerases I and IIalpha bind directly to an immobilized derivative of acetyl-BA. This acetyl-BA derivative interacts with human topoisomerases through high-affinity binding sites yielding K(D) values of 70.6 nM for topoisomerase I and 7.6 nM for topoisomerase IIalpha. Based on our data, we propose that acetyl-BA inhibit topoisomerases I and IIalpha through competition with DNA for binding to the enzyme. Thus, acetyl-BA are a unique class of dual catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerases I and IIalpha.
Article: Betulinic acid, a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerase I, inhibits reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complex formation in prostate cancer cells but does not affect the process of cell death.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The ubiquitious enzyme topoisomerase I can be targeted by drugs which turn these enzymes into cellular poisons and subsequently induce cell death. Drugs like staurosporine, which do not target topoisomerase I directly, can also lead to stabilization of topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complexes by an indirect process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. In this study, we show that betulinic acid, a catalytic inhibitor of topoisomerases, inhibits the formation of apoptotic topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complexes in prostate cancer cells induced by drugs like camptothecin, staurosporine, and etoposide. Although events like ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA fragmentation were observed after betulinic acid treatment, there is no topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complex formation, which is a key step in ROS-induced apoptotic processes. We have shown that betulinic acid interacts with cellular topoisomerase I and prohibits its interaction with the oxidatively damaged DNA. Using oligonucleotide containing 8-oxoguanosine modification, we have shown that betulinic acid inhibits its cleavage by topoisomerase I in vitro. Whereas silencing of topoisomerase I gene by small interfering RNA reduces cell death in the case of staurosporine and camptothecin, it cannot substantially reduce betulinic acid-induced cell death. Thus, our study provides evidence that betulinic acid inhibits formation of apoptotic topoisomerase I-DNA complexes and prevents the cellular topoisomerase I from directly participating in the apoptotic process.Cancer Research 01/2008; 67(24):11848-58. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Immobilizing topoisomerase I on a surface plasmon resonance biosensor chip to screen for inhibitors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The topoisomerase I (TopI) reaction intermediate consists of an enzyme covalently linked to a nicked DNA molecule, known as a TopI-DNA complex, that can be trapped by inhibitors and results in failure of re-ligation. Attempts at new derivative designs for TopI inhibition are enthusiastically being pursued, and TopI inhibitors were developed for a variety of applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was recently used in TopI-inhibition studies. However, most such immobilized small molecules or short-sequence nucleotides are used as ligands onto sensor chips, and TopI was used as the analyte that flowed through the sensor chip. We established a sensor chip on which the TopI protein is immobilized to evaluate TopI inhibition by SPR. Camptothecin (CPT) targeting the DNA-TopI complex was used as a representative inhibitor to validate this label-free method. Purified recombinant human TopI was covalently coupled to the sensor chip for the SPR assay. The binding of anti-human (h)TopI antibodies and plasmid pUC19, respectively, to the immobilized hTopI was observed with dose-dependent increases in resonance units (RU) suggesting that the immobilized hTopI retains its DNA-binding activity. Neither CPT nor evodiamine alone in the analyte flowing through the sensor chip showed a significant increase in RU. The combination of pUC19 and TopI inhibitors as the analyte flowing through the sensor chip caused increases in RU. This confirms its reliability for binding kinetic studies of DNA-TopI binders for interaction and for primary screening of TopI inhibitors. TopI immobilized on the chip retained its bioactivities of DNA binding and catalysis of intermediates of the DNA-TopI complex. This provides DNA-TopI binders for interaction and primary screening with a label-free method. In addition, this biochip can also ensure the reliability of binding kinetic studies of TopI.Journal of Biomedical Science 01/2010; 17:49. · 2.01 Impact Factor
Article: Boswellic acid suppresses growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model through modulation of multiple targets.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) is one of the most lethal cancers, with an estimated 5-year survival of <5% even when patients are given the best treatment available. In addition, these treatments are often toxic and expensive, thus new agents which are safe, affordable and effective are urgently needed. We describe here the results of our study with acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), an agent obtained from an Ayurvedic medicine, gum resin of Boswellia serrata. Whether AKBA has an activity against human PaCa, was examined in in vitro models and in an orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa. We found that AKBA inhibited the proliferation of four different PaCa cell lines (AsPC-1, PANC-28, and MIA PaCa-2 with K-Ras and p53 mutations, and BxPC-3 with wild-type K-Ras and p53 mutation). These effects correlated with an inhibition of constitutively active NF-κB and suppression of NF-κB regulating gene expression. AKBA also induced apoptosis, and sensitized the cells to apoptotic effects of gemcitabine. In the orthotopic nude mouse model of PaCa, p.o. administration of AKBA alone (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the tumor growth; this activity was enhanced by gemcitabine. In addition, AKBA inhibited the metastasis of the PaCa to spleen, liver, and lungs. This correlated with decreases in Ki-67, a biomarker of proliferation, and CD31, a biomarker of microvessel density, in the tumor tissue. AKBA produced significant decreases in the expression of NF-κB regulating genes in the tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed AKBA downregulated the expression of COX-2, MMP-9, CXCR4, and VEGF in the tissues. Overall these results demonstrate that AKBA can suppress the growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model that correlates with modulation of multiple targets.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e26943. · 4.09 Impact Factor