Characterization of a diltiazem-lambda carrageenan complex.
ABSTRACT In the present paper the interaction between lambda carrageenan, a natural sulphated polysaccharide, and diltiazem HCl, a Ca channel blocking agent, was studied. Dialysis equilibria were performed to quantify the binding capacity of lambda carrageenan for diltiazem. The relevance of the interaction to hydrophilic matrix systems was confirmed: a relationship was found between the binding capacity and the release profiles of matrix tablets containing a fixed amount of drug and different percentages of lambda carrageenan. Dialysis equilibria in buffered media showed that the interaction is quite insensitive to the pH of the medium (in the range 1.8-6.8), while it is reduced by increasing ionic strength; this behaviour is in line with the importance of ionic bonds in diltiazem-carrageenan interaction. On the basis of the calculated binding capacity, the complex was prepared, dried and milled. A preliminary characterization of the diltiazem-carrageenan complex in the solid state was effected by means of X-ray and DSC analysis. The amount of drug going into solution from the complex was not significantly affected by the pH of the medium (in the range 1.8-6.8), while it was increased by increasing ionic strength.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to provide the reader general and inspiring prospects on recent and promising fields of innovation in oral drug delivery. Nowadays, inventive drug delivery systems vary from geometrically modified and modular matrices, more close to "classic" pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, to futuristic bio micro-electro-mechanical systems (bioMEMS), based on manufacturing techniques borrowed from electronics and other fields. In these technologies new materials and creative solutions are essential designing intelligent drug delivery systems able to release the required drug at the proper body location with the correct release rate. In particular, oral drug delivery systems of the future are expected to have a significant impact on the treatment of diseases, such as AIDS, cancer, malaria, diabetes requiring complex and multi-drug therapies, as well as on the life of patients, whose age and/or health status make necessary a multiple pharmacological approach.Pharmaceutical Research 02/2009; 26(3):601-11. · 4.09 Impact Factor