Article

Determination of intramolecular distance distribution during protein folding on the millisecond timescale.

Department of Life Sciences, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, 52900, Israel.
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.96). 07/2000; 299(5):1363-71. DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.2000.3814
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A method for determination of transient (on the millisecond timescale) intramolecular distance distributions (IDDs) by time-resolved dynamic non-radiative excitation energy transfer measurements was developed. The time-course of the development of the IDD between residues 73 and 203 in the CORE domain of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase throughout refolding from the GuHCl-induced denatured state was determined. The mean of the apparent IDD reduced to a value close to its magnitude in the native protein, within 2 ms (the dead-time of the instrument). At that time the width of that distribution was rather large (16+/-2 A). The large width implies that the intramolecular diffusion coefficient of the labeled segment does not exceed 10(-7) cm(2)/second. In a second slower phase of the refolding transition, the width was reduced to its native value (6+/-4 A).

0 Bookmarks
 · 
72 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We developed a new experimental approach combining Time-Resolved Fluorescence (TRF) spectroscopy and Droplet Microfluidics (DμF) to investigate the relaxation dynamics of structurally heterogeneous biomolecular systems. Here DμF was used to produce with minimal material consumption an out-of-equilibrium, fluorescently labeled biomolecular complex by rapid mixing within the droplets. TRF detection was implemented with a streak camera to monitor the time evolution of the structural heterogeneity of the complex along its relaxation towards equilibrium while it propagates inside the microfluidic channel. The approach was validated by investigating the fluorescence decay kinetics of a model interacting system of bovine serum albumin and Patent Blue V. Fluorescence decay kinetics are acquired with very good signal-to-noise ratio and allow for global, multicomponent fluorescence decay analysis, evidencing heterogeneous structural relaxation over several 100 ms.
    Lab on a Chip 03/2014; · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Having multiple domains in proteins can lead to partial folding and increased aggregation. Folding cooperativity, the all or nothing folding of a protein, can reduce this aggregation propensity. In agreement with bulk experiments, a coarse-grained structure-based model of the three-domain protein, E. coli Adenylate kinase (AKE), folds cooperatively. Domain interfaces have previously been implicated in the cooperative folding of multi-domain proteins. To understand their role in AKE folding, we computationally create mutants with deleted inter-domain interfaces and simulate their folding. We find that inter-domain interfaces play a minor role in the folding cooperativity of AKE. On further analysis, we find that unlike other multi-domain proteins whose folding has been studied, the domains of AKE are not singly-linked. Two of its domains have two linkers to the third one, i.e., they are inserted into the third one. We use circular permutation to modify AKE chain-connectivity and convert inserted-domains into singly-linked domains. We find that domain insertion in AKE achieves the following: (1) It facilitates folding cooperativity even when domains have different stabilities. Insertion constrains the N- and C-termini of inserted domains and stabilizes their folded states. Therefore, domains that perform conformational transitions can be smaller with fewer stabilizing interactions. (2) Inter-domain interactions are not needed to promote folding cooperativity and can be tuned for function. In AKE, these interactions help promote conformational dynamics limited catalysis. Finally, using structural bioinformatics, we suggest that domain insertion may also facilitate the cooperative folding of other multi-domain proteins.
    PLoS Computational Biology 11/2014; 10(11):e1003938. · 4.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Detailed studies of the mechanisms of macromolecular conformational transitions such as protein folding are enhanced by analysis of changes of distributions for intramolecular distances during the transitions. Time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements yield such data, but the more readily available kinetics of mean FRET efficiency changes cannot be analyzed in terms of changes in distances because of the sixth-power dependence on the mean distance. To enhance the information obtained from mean FRET efficiency kinetics, we combined the analyses of FRET efficiency kinetics and equilibrium trFRET experiments. The joint analysis enabled determination of transient distance distributions along the folding reaction both in cases where a two-state transition is valid and in some cases consisting of a three-state scenario. The procedure and its limits were tested by simulations. Experimental data obtained from stopped-flow measurements of the refolding of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase were analyzed. The distance distributions between three double-labeled mutants, in the collapsed transient state, were determined and compared to those obtained experimentally using the double-kinetics technique. The proposed method effectively provides information on distance distributions of kinetically accessed intermediates of fast conformational transitions induced by common relaxation methods.
    Biophysical Journal 02/2014; 106(3):667-76. · 3.83 Impact Factor