Surgical staging of early invasive epithelial ovarian tumors.
ABSTRACT Early stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma is defined pathologically as a tumor strictly limited to one or both ovaries without any extra-ovarian disease (i.e., Stage IA or B of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification). This diagnosis can be obtained only after an exhaustive surgical staging procedure, performed as soon as the diagnosis of epithelial invasive ovarian carcinoma is established. This staging surgery currently encompasses a peritoneal cytology, the thorough inspection of all the visceral and parietal peritoneal surfaces with biopsy of any abnormality, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO), random peritoneal biopsies, omentectomy, appendectomy and bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomies, up to the left renal vein. The results of this staging procedure and its indications are discussed. In all of the cases, the radical removal of the pathologic adnexa is indicated, along with the complete peritoneal and retroperitoneal staging. While fertility-sparing surgery (avoiding hysterectomy and contralateral adnexectomy, if possible) seems to be safe for young women, a TAH + BSO is the rule for the others. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be omitted in well-differentiated tumors with a negative staging operation, but currently it remains indicated in all other cases. Indeed, the ultimate goal in early stage ovarian carcinoma is to not impair by inadequate management the high chance of a cure.
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the effect of increasing experience of a single surgeon (learning curve) in the laparoscopic staging procedure for women with early ovarian cancer and compared the results with the literature. We retrospectively analysed a total of 25 women with apparent early-stage ovarian cancer who underwent a laparoscopic staging procedure by the same surgeon. Three time periods, based on date of surgery, were compared with respect to operating time, amount of lymph nodes harvested and surgical outcome. There was no significant difference in operation time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay between the three periods. There was, however, a significant increase in the median number of pelvic and para-aortal lymph nodes harvested (group1 = 6.5, group 2 = 8.0 and group 3 = 21.0; P < 0.005). For the total period, median operation time was 235 min and median estimated blood loss was 100 ml. The median length of hospital stay was 4.0 days. Two intraoperative and two postoperative complications occurred. The upstaging rate was 32%. The mean interval between initial surgery and laparoscopic staging was 51.2 days. Mean duration of follow-up was 43 months, range (1-116 months). Five (20%) patients had recurrences, and two (8%) patients died of the disease. In conclusion, there is a significant learning curve for the laparoscopic full staging procedure in ovarian cancer. In our study this is mainly reflected in the amount of lymph nodes harvested and not in the total operating time.Gynecological Surgery 02/2012; 9(1):89-96.