The potential physiological significance of milk-borne hormonally active substances for the neonate.
ABSTRACT This article reviews the presence and potential physiological significance of hormones and hormonally active substances (including growth factors) in human milk. Human milk has been found to contain several nonpeptide hormones and many peptide hormones and growth factors. In contrast to human breast milk, infant formulae lack some hormonally active peptides. There is little data concerning the effects of these agents on human neonates. Studies in immature experimental animals showing effects of orogastically administered hormones are summarized. The problems of supplementation of infant formula are discussed. Since hormones are present in the milk as a "cocktail" of potentially agonistic and antagonistic substances, one question is whether supplementation with a single agent would disturb this balance.
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ABSTRACT: Provision of an optimal environment for the calf is critical to establishing the patterns of growth and development essential to allow the heifer to express its genetic potential for milk output and reproductive capacity during its productive life. Maternal nutrition during gestation is now recognised as a key to genetic programming in utero and this influence is extended through the complexity of hormones, growth factors and immunostimulants incorporated into colostrum and milk consumed by the neonatal calf. This natural process is most often disrupted as calves are weaned abruptly to maximise milk output for commercial exploitation. The key then is to accelerate the rate of maturation of the ruminal epithelium through the provision of concentrate starter rations and high quality forage, which promote VFA production. Management systems to promote these processes in Holstein Friesian cattle are well developed, however, little is known of these processes with buffalo and Bos indicus dairy cattle such as the Sahiwal. The development of methods to program the neonate to grow faster to puberty in these species will be important to improving their productivity for the dairy industries in tropical and sub-tropical environments in the future.Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 05/2009; 22(5). DOI:10.5713/ajas.2009.r.06 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk-placing drops of milk onto the infant's oral mucosa-may serve as a preventative strategy against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) for extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW: birth weight <1000 g) infants. Necrotizing enterocolitis is a devastating gastrointestinal disorder which is associated with significant mortality for ELBW infants. Survivors are at risk for costly and handicapping morbidities, including severe neurological impairment. The oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk to ELBW infants may serve to expose the infant's oropharynx to protective (immune and trophic) biofactors (also present in amniotic fluid) and may protect the infant against NEC. Emerging evidence suggests that this intervention may have many benefits for extremely premature infants including protection against bacteremia, NEC, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, an earlier attainment of full enteral feeds, enhanced maturation of oral feeding skills, improved growth, and enhanced breast-feeding outcomes. While more research is needed to definitively establish safety and efficacy of this intervention, this article will examine biological plausibility and will describe the theoretical mechanisms of protection against NEC for ELBW infants who receive this intervention. Nurses play a key role in advancing the science and practice of this intervention. Future directions for research and implications for nursing practice will also be presented.The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 01/2015; 29(1):81-90. DOI:10.1097/JPN.0000000000000087 · 0.81 Impact Factor