Pediatric deaths attributable to complex chronic conditions: a population-based study of Washington State, 1980-1997.
ABSTRACT Advances in medical technology and public health are changing the causes and patterns of pediatric mortality. To better inform health care planning for dying children, we sought to determine if an increasing proportion of pediatric deaths were attributable to an underlying complex chronic condition (CCC), what the typical age of CCC-associated deaths was, and whether this age was increasing.
Population-based retrospective cohort from 1980 to 1997, compiled from Washington State annual censuses and death certificates of children 0 to 18 years old.
For each of 9 categories of CCCs, the counts of death, mortality rates, and ages of death.
Nearly one-quarter of the 21 617 child deaths during this period were attributable to a CCC. Death rates for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), CCCs, and all other causes each declined, but less so for CCCs. Among infants who died because of causes other than injury or SIDS, 31% of the remaining deaths were attributable to a CCC in 1980 and 41% by 1997; for deaths in children 1 year of age and older, CCCs were cited in 53% in 1980, versus 58% in 1997. The median age of death for all CCCs was 4 months 9 days, with substantial differences among CCCs. No overall change in the age of death between 1980 to 1997 was found (nonparametric trend test).
CCCs account for an increasing proportion of child deaths. The majority of these deaths occur during infancy, but the typical age varies by cause. These findings should help shape the design of support care services offered to children dying with chronic conditions and their families.
SourceAvailable from: Bryce A. Van Doren[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To characterize the frequency, cost, and hospital-reported outcomes of cachexia and debility in children and adolescents with complex chronic conditions (CCCs). Methods: We identified children and adolescents (aged ≤20 years) with CCCs, cachexia, and debility in the Kids’ Inpatient Database [Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality]. We then compared the characteristics of patients and hospitalizations, including cost and duration of stay, for CCCs with and without cachexia and/ or debility. We examined factors that predict risk of inpatient mortality in children and adolescents with CCCs using a logistic regression model. We examined factors that impact duration of stay and cost in children and adolescents with CCCs using negative binomial regression models. All costs are reported in US dollars in 2014 using Consumer Price Index inflation adjustment. Results: We estimated the incidence of hospitalization of cachexia in children and adolescents with CCCs at 1,395 discharges during the sample period, which ranged from 277 discharges in 2003 to 473 discharges in 2012. We estimated the incidence of hospitalization due to debility in children and adolescents with CCCs at 421 discharges during the sample period, which ranged from 39 discharges in 2003 to 217 discharges in 2012. Cachexia was associated with a 60% increase in the risk of inpatient mortality, whereas debility was associated with a 40% decrease in the risk of mortality. Cachexia and debility increased duration of stay in hospital (17% and 39% longer stays, respectively). Median cost of hospitalization was $15,441.59 and $23,796.16 for children and adolescents with cachexia and debility, respectively. Conclusions: Incidence of hospitalization for cachexia in children and adolescents with CCCs is less than that for adults but the frequency of cachexia diagnoses increased over time. Estimates of the incidence of hospitalization with debility in children and adolescents with CCCs have not been reported, but our study demonstrates that the frequency of these discharges is also increasing.Drugs in Context 02/2015; 2015(4):212277. DOI:10.7573/dic.212277
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Pediatric palliative care increasingly became integrated into health care institutions worldwide over the last decade. However, in Mexico and other developing countries with large populations of children, little is known regarding the need for palliative care services. We aimed to assess the need for palliative and end-of-life care for children dying in public hospitals affiliated with Secretaria de Salud in Mexico. Measurement: We conducted a retrospective review of deaths of children (1-17 years old) occurring during 2011 and determined deaths associated with underlying complex chronic conditions by reviewing the four causes of death listed in the death certificate. We collected sociodemographic and clinical data and utilized univariate and multivariate analyses to determine factors associated with complex chronic conditions. Results: A total of 2715 pediatric deaths were studied. We found 41% were associated with a complex chronic condition. The most frequent types of conditions were malignancies (47%), neuromuscular (18%), cardiovascular (12%), and renal (10%). Children with renal and malignant conditions died at an older age than children with other types of complex chronic conditions. Multivariate analysis indicated the independent predictors of death with complex chronic condition were no indigenous ethnicity, lack of admission to the intensive care unit during the final hospital stay, and having affiliation with an institution for health care. Conclusions: A large proportion of pediatric deaths are associated with complex chronic conditions indicating the provision of adequate funding for professional education and palliative care initiatives for children in Mexico, should be a topic of the national health care agenda.Journal of Palliative Medicine 10/2014; 18(2). DOI:10.1089/jpm.2014.0129 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD) and malignancies has not been determined. This study aimed to explore the association of CHD with malignancies and examine the risk factors for the development of cancer after a diagnosis of CHD. This nationwide, population-based cohort study on cancer risk evaluated 31,961 patients with newly diagnosed CHD using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) between 1998 and 2006. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all and specific cancer types were analyzed, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate risk factors of cancer occurrence. Among patients with newly diagnosed CHD regardless of ages, 187 (0.6%) subsequently developed cancers after a diagnosis of CHD. Patients with CHD had increased risk of cancer (SIR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.25-1.67), as well as significantly elevated risks of hematologic (SIR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.76-5.70), central nervous system (CNS) (SIR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.92-5.89), and head and neck (SIR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94) malignancies. Age (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.06) and co-morbid chronic liver disease (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.87) were independent risk factors for cancer occurrence among CHD patients. Patients with CHD have significantly increased cancer risk, particularly hematologic, CNS, and head and neck malignancies. Physicians who care for patients with CHD should be aware of their predisposition to malignancy after the diagnosis of CHD. Further studies are warranted to clarify the association between CHD and malignancies.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116844. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116844 · 3.53 Impact Factor