Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.26). 07/2000; 880(1-2):3-33. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00318-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.
    TheScientificWorldJournal. 01/2014; 2014:964731.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beef quality indicators of off-flavor development during storage were investigated in terms of temperature dependence. The off-flavor development time (ODT) was detected using the R-index sensory test. During varying storage conditions at , , and , elements of beef quality were measured, such as volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), pH, color (CIE , , ), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), Pseudomonas spp. CFU, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) CFU. A model with temperature dependence of ODT during storage was developed using Arrhenius-like equation, and a requirement with quality indicators was mathematically derived, resulting in similar temperature dependence. The temperature dependence of beef quality indicators was represented by the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea). Upon comparing the Ea of beef quality indicators and ODT, the temperature dependence similarity was found to be higher in the order of three groups: VBN, pH, value; LAB, Pseudomonas spp.; and WBSF, value, value. Therefore, VBN were determined as the most effective indicator of beef quality during off-flavor development.
    Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources 06/2009; 29(3). · 0.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel sampling method of the headspace poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mini-disk extraction (HS-PDE) was developed, optimized, validated and applied for the GC/MS analysis of spices flavors. A prototype PDMS mini-disk (8 mm outer diameter, 0.157 mm thickness, 9.4 mg weight) has been designed and fabricated as a sorption device. The technique uses a small PDMS mini-disk and very small volume of organic solvent and less sample size than the solvent extraction. This new HS-PDE method is very simple to use, inexpensive, rapid, requires less labor. Linearities of calibration curves for -pinene, -pinene, limonene and -terpinene by HS-PDE combined with GC/MS were excellent having values greater than 0.99 at the dynamic range of 6.06~3500 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) showed very low values. This method exhibited good precision and accuracy. The overall extraction efficiency of this method was evaluated by using partition coefficients () and concentration factors (CF) for several characteristic components from nutmeg and mace. Partition coefficients were in the range from to , while CF values were 0.88-15.03. HS-PDE was applied successfully for the analysis of flavors compositions from nutmeg, mace and cumin. The HS-PDE method is a very promising sampling technique for the characterization of volatile flavors.
    Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 01/2011; 32(10). · 0.84 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014