Structure of the Bufo arenarum kidney: renal corpuscle, neck segment and proximal tubule.
ABSTRACT The structural organization of the renal corpuscle (RC), ciliated neck segment (NS) and the proximal tubule (PT) were studied in the toad, Bufo arenarum, by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. The ciliated neck segment and the proximal tubule are located in the dorsolateral zone of the kidney, while the distal tubules are located in a ventromedial zone. RC are found between these two zones. The glomerular filter apparatus consists of the podocyte epithelium, a basement membrane, a subendothelial space and an endothelium. The podocyte emits cytoplasmatic processes extending over the surface of the glomerular capillaries. These processes divide into further processes ending in expansions known as pediceles. The basement membrane consists of a lamina rara externa and a rather thin lamina densa, while the subendothelial space contains collagen fibers and slender cytoplasmic processes of the mesangial cells. NS are composed of ciliated cells with a characteristic location of the mitochondria. The PT consists of prismatic cells with a dense luminal brush border of long microvilli and numerous apical vesicles. The basal cell membrane is increased by small infoldings. One characteristic structure of the cytoplasm is the presence of lipid droplets. The cytological structure of PT cells can be considered as an adaptation for the reabsorption of organic materials.
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ABSTRACT: This study deals with the morphology and ultrastructure of the mesonephros in adult caecilians of the species Geotrypetes seraphini. Based on serial sections in paraffin and araldite, nephrons are reconstructed and the cellular characteristics of different nephron segments described. The long and slender mesonephric kidneys of G. seraphini are broadest caudally and taper toward the front, where the organs are divided into smaller segmental divisions. Two nephron types can be distinguished on the basis of their connections to the coelom and their position within the nephric tissue: ventral nephrons connect to the coelom via a ciliated peritoneal funnel, whereas medial nephrons lack this connection. Both nephron types are composed of a filtration unit, the Malpighian corpuscle, and a renal tubule, which can be divided into six morphologically distinct segments: neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, early distal tubule, late distal tubule, and collecting tubule. Collecting tubules merge and form a branch system that opens into collecting ducts. Collecting ducts empty into the Wolffian duct. Proximal tubules of nephrons in the frontal divisions are morphologically different from the proximal tubules of more caudal kidney regions. Distal tubule subdivision is only clearly recognizable at the electron microscopic level. The length of each nephron segment is calculated from a ventral nephron with a total length of approximately 3.8 mm, and the course of the segments within the nephric tissue is reported. The number of nephrons was estimated at 1,700 units in each kidney. The segmentation and ultrastructure of the mesonephric nephrons in G. seraphini are discussed in relation to nephron descriptions from other caecilians and we further discuss the evolutionary origin of the amphibian nephron.Journal of Morphology 12/2004; 262(2):583-607. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ultrastructure of the intermediate segment (IS), distal tubule and collecting tubule (CT) of the south american toad Bufo arenarum, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IS is composed of cubical ciliated cells which propel the urine along the renal tubule. The distal tubule is divided into two portions: the early distal tubule (EDT) and the late distal tubule (LDT). The EDT is characterized by only one type of cells with well developed basolateral interdigitations and numerous elongated mitochondria, which are oriented normal to the basal surface. The "macula densa--like" is a specialized zone of the EDT in contact with the vascular pole, where cells are more tightly packed than in the rest of the tubule. The LDT shows two types of cells called dark and light cells according to the appearance of their cytoplasm. Dark cells have microplicae and few but long microvilli at their luminal surface, and abundant mitochondria in their cytoplasm. Light cells show basal and lateral infoldings and few mitochondria. The CT, which is composed of dark and light cells, exhibits an enlarged lumen with an undulated surface and dilated spaces between neighbouring cells. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the kidney of B. arenarum; frequently used as an experimental model for physiological and biochemical studies.Biocell: official journal of the Sociedades Latinoamericanas de Microscopía Electronica ... et. al 05/2003; 27(1):19-28. · 0.58 Impact Factor