Young suicide attempters: a comparison between a clinical and an epidemiological sample.
ABSTRACT To compare risk factors for self-harm in 2 groups: hospitalized adolescents who had attempted suicide and adolescents reporting suicide attempts in a community survey.
All suicide attempters aged 13 to 19 years admitted to medical wards (n = 91) in a region of Norway were assessed and interviewed. Risk factors were identified by comparisons with a general population sample participating in a questionnaire study in the same community (n = 1,736). In this population sample, a separate analysis of risk factors for reporting deliberate self-harm (n = 141) was performed, applying bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models.
Adjusted risk factors for suicide attempts in hospitalized adolescents were depression (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7), disruptive disorders (OR = 9.4), low self-worth (OR = 1.3), infrequent support from parents (OR = 3.3) or peers (OR = 3.3), parents' excessive drinking (OR = 4.3), and low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.4). For adolescents who self-reported self-harm, depression (OR = 3.1) and loneliness (OR = 1.13) were significant adjusted risk factors (p < .001). Low self-worth, low socioeconomic status, and little support from parents or peers characterized hospitalized suicidal adolescents compared with those who were not hospitalized.
The risk factors were more powerful for hospitalized than for nonhospitalized adolescents. Prevention efforts should target the same factors for both groups, at a population level for nonhospitalized adolescents and at an individual level for hospitalized adolescents, with a focus on depression, low self-esteem, and family communication.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The present study investigates the longitudinal relationship between perceived family and peer invalidation and adolescent suicidal events (SE) and self-mutilation (SM) in a 6 month follow-up (f/u) study of adolescents admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit for suicide risk. Methods: Adolescents (n=119) and their parent(s) were administered interviews and self-report assessments at baseline and at a 6 month f/u, with 99 (83%) completing both assessments. The Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation (A-LIFE) was modified to provide weekly ratings (baseline and each week of f/u) for perceived family and peer invalidation. Regression analyses examined whether: 1) Prospectively rated perceived family and peer invalidation at baseline predicted SE and SM during f/u; and 2) chronicity of perceived invalidation operationalized as proportion of weeks at moderate to high invalidation during f/u was associated with SE and SM during f/u. Results: Multiple regression analyses, controlling for previously identified covariates, revealed that perceived family invalidation predicted SE over f/u for boys only and perceived peer invalidation predicted SM over f/u in the overall sample. This was the case for both baseline and f/u ratings of perceived invalidation. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the adverse impact of perceived family and peer invalidation. Specifically, boys who experienced high perceived family invalidation were more likely to have an SE over f/u. Both boys and girls who experienced high perceived peer invalidation were more likely to engage in SM over f/u.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 09/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1089/cap.2013.0132 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the wake of several highly publicized adolescent suicides attributed to bullying victimization, national attention has been brought to bear on the profound public health problem of bullying. This article reviews the extant literature on the associations between bullying perpetration, victimization, and thoughts of or attempts at suicide, and proposes five potential mediators: depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness, and hopelessness that may explain this relationship. Numerous studies have found empirical support for the interrelations between internalizing behaviors and both bullying perpetration and victimization, and suicide. We find that further longitudinal research needs to be conducted to more conclusively determine the role and causal ordering these various psychosocial factors may play in bullying perpetration, victimization, and suicide. Although the research literature implies causal directions among all these potential mediators, untangling the unique influence of bullying perpetration, victimization, and bully-victimization on suicide and its mechanisms of action has major research and practice implications.Trauma Violence & Abuse 01/2014; DOI:10.1177/1524838014537904 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12-15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 01/2014; 42(6). DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9844-7 · 3.09 Impact Factor