Activity of thalidomide in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
ABSTRACT To assess the toxicity and activity of oral thalidomide in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a phase II dose-escalation study.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients with biopsy-confirmed KS that progressed over the 2 months before enrollment received an initial dose of 200 mg/d of oral thalidomide in a phase II study. The dose was increased to a maximum of 1,000 mg/d for up to 1 year. Anti-HIV therapy was maintained during the study period. Toxicity, tumor response, immunologic and angiogenic factors, and virologic parameters were assessed.
Twenty patients aged 29 to 49 years with a median CD4 count of 246 cells/mm(3) (range, 14 to 646 cells/mm(3)) were enrolled. All patients were assessable for toxicity, and 17 for response. Drowsiness in nine and depression in seven patients were the most frequent toxicities observed. Eight (47%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23% to 72%) of the 17 assessable patients achieved a partial response, and an additional two patients had stable disease. Based on all 20 patients treated, the response rate was 40% (95% CI, 19% to 64%). The median thalidomide dose at the time of response was 500 mg/d (range, 400 to 1,000 mg/d). The median duration of drug treatment was 6.3 months, and the median time to progression was 7.3 months.
Oral thalidomide was tolerated in this population at doses up to 1,000 mg/d for as long as 12 months and was found to induce clinically meaningful anti-KS responses in a sizable subset of the patients. Additional studies of this agent in KS are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is defined by various clinical manifestations following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV patients primarily infected with Mycobacteria. IRIS has clinical similarities with lepromatous reactions in patients with leprosy following antibiotic initiation. Areas covered: Tuberculosis and more rarely lepromatous leprae and Whipple's disease are the main diseases caused by actinobacteria associated with IRIS, regardless of HIV status. The pathogenesis of this syndrome remains complex and partially understood. The treatment for IRIS is non-evidence-based, except for corticosteroids in tuberculosis-IRIS. Thalidomide and other immunomodulatory drugs have been successfully used in case series. Expert opinion: IRIS is mainly observed during infections (viral, fungal or bacterial) which involve inefficient macrophages for the clearance of bacteria, namely Actinobacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae, M. tuberculosis and Tropheryma whipplei. The restoration of macrophage competence after ART or antibiotic initiation results from a complex mechanism, probably involving a sudden and violent immune reaction with a cytokine storm, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ. This overreaction might be controlled using corticosteroids and thalidomide.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 02/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.887677 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative disorder, has a viral etiology and a multifactorial pathogenesis hinged on an immune dysfunction. The disease is multifocal, with a course ranging from indolent, with only skin manifestations to fulminant, with extensive visceral involvement. In the current view, all forms of KS have a common etiology in human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 infection, and the differences among them are due to the involvement of various cofactors. In fact, HHV-8 infection can be considered a necessary but not sufficient condition for the development of KS, because further factors (genetic, immunologic, and environmental) are required. The role of cofactors can be attributed to their ability to interact with HHV-8, to affect the immune system, or to act as vasoactive agents. In this contribution, a survey of the current state of knowledge on many and various factors involved in KS pathogenesis is carried out, in particular by highlighting the facts and controversies about the role of some drugs (quinine analogues and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) in the onset of the disease. Based on these assessments, it is possible to hypothesize that the role of cofactors in KS pathogenesis can move toward an effect either favoring or inhibiting the onset of the disease, depending on the presence of other agents modulating the pathogenesis itself, such as genetic predisposition, environmental factors, drug intake, or lymph flow disorders. It is possible that the same agents may act as either stimulating or inhibiting cofactors according to the patient's genetic background and variable interactions. Treatment guidelines for each form of KS are outlined, because a unique standard therapy for all of them cannot be considered due to KS heterogeneity. In most cases, therapeutic options, both local and systemic, should be tailored to the patient's peculiar clinical conditions.Clinics in dermatology 07/2013; 31(4):413-422. DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.01.008 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pomalidomide is a second generation IMiD (immunomodulatory agent) that has recently been granted approval by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma after prior treatment with two antimyeloma agents, including lenalidomide and bortezomib. A simple and robust HPLC assay with fluorescence detection for pomalidomide over the range of 1-500ng/mL has been developed for application to pharmacokinetic studies in ongoing clinical trials in various other malignancies. A liquid-liquid extraction from human plasma alone or pre-stabilized with 0.1% HCl was performed, using propyl paraben as the internal standard. From plasma either pre-stabilized with 0.1% HCl or not, the assay was shown to be selective, sensitive, accurate, precise, and have minimal matrix effects (<20%). Pomalidomide was stable in plasma through 4 freeze-thaw cycles (<12% change), in plasma at room temperature for up to 2h for samples not pre-stabilized with 0.1% HCl and up to 8h in samples pre-stabilized with 0.1% HCl, 24h post-preparation at 4°C (<2% change), and showed excellent extraction recovery (∼90%). This is the first reported description of the freeze/thaw and plasma stability of pomalidomide in plasma either pre-stabilized with 0.1% HCl or not. The information presented in this manuscript is important when performing pharmacokinetic analyses. The method was used to analyze clinical pharmacokinetics samples obtained after a 5mg oral dose of pomalidomide. This relatively simple HPLC-FL assay allows a broader range of laboratories to measure pomalidomide for application to clinical pharmacokinetics.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 01/2014; 92C:63-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2014.01.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor