Bile duct apoptosis and cholestasis resembling acute graft-versus-host disease after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the liver is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. This report describes hepatic GVHD following autologous transplantation.
We reviewed 116 consecutive autologous transplant recipients. A diagnosis of GVHD was based on histology (segmental to subtotal destruction of bile ductal epithelial cells with apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltrates), clinical criteria (elevated serum alkaline phosphatase), a response to immunosuppressive therapy, and finding no other cause for cholestatic liver disease.
Two patients developed cholestatic liver disease (alkaline phosphatase levels over five times the normal upper limit) and had liver biopsies showing apoptotic and dysmorphic ductular epithelial cells typical of GVHD. Three additional patients developed cholestasis and intestinal symptoms but had gastric biopsies only, showing apoptotic crypt epithelial cells and crypt cell drop-out typical of GVHD.
Two recipients of autologous hematopoietic cells developed histologic abnormalities of small bile ducts and cholestatic liver disease resembling GVHD of the liver after allogeneic transplant. The mechanisms of bile duct damage in this setting may involve immune dysregulation related to reconstitution of immunity with peripheral blood stem cells.
Article: L’apoptose hépatique[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Apoptosis or programmed cell death occurs in the liver as in other organs. In the normal state it is not a frequent mode of hepatic cell destruction. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of liver cell apoptosis do not differ from what is observed in other cells. The Fas receptor pathway, a frequent hepatic apoptotic pathway among various others, involves intra-cellular signals amplified by mitochondria. Although hepatic apoptosis may occur by following several others pathways, Fas, which is abundantly expressed in the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, is very often involved in hepatocyte demise during B or C viral hepatitis irrespective of their clinical form, alcoholic hepatitis, cholestasis due to accumulation of hepatic biliary salts, or certain types of drug-induced hepatitis. Fas is also probably responsible for the death of biliary cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. In contrast one of the causes of resistance to apoptosis of hepatic cancerous cells could be related to an alteration of the Fas receptor. This is why much experimental work is presently performed to achieve inhibition of the Fas receptor either at the mRNA level or at the level of Fas-inductible proteolytic enzymes called caspases. One perspective is a specific treatment of apoptosis as an adjuvant treatment of liver diseases.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 04/2006; 30(4):533-545. DOI:10.1016/S0399-8320(06)73222-5 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), formerly known as bone marrow transplantation, is an integral part of treatment for many hematological malignancies. HCT is associated with several complications and comorbidities with differential effects on a wide spectrum of organs and tissues. We present an update on HCT-associated complications such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and infection, with focus on the surgical pathology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung. Although the grading system for GI tract acute GVHD was proposed 40 years ago, recent studies have shed light on minimal histologic criteria for diagnosis of GVHD, as well as its differential diagnosis, including histologic effects of various medications. GI dysfunction in autologous transplant recipients is increasingly appreciated and patients are often biopsied. Acute liver injury in HCT is often due to sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (previously known as venoocclusive disease), or acute GVHD. Liver dysfunction at later time posttransplantation may be associated with acute or chronic GVHD, iron overload, or other causes of hepatitis. Lung injury in HCT is multifactorial, and it remains crucially important to diagnose and treat pulmonary infections. The pulmonary biopsy yields clinically unsuspected diagnoses in the majority of cases and its utilization is likely to increase. The pathology of the skin and kidney in HCT patients are detailed in accompanying articles.Advances in Anatomic Pathology 09/2014; 21(5):301-320. DOI:10.1097/PAP.0000000000000032 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). However, a similar syndrome has been reported in autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as well. The target organs of GVHD in ASCT are the skin, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which are consistent with those in allo-SCT. Histologic findings from the skin and the mucosa of the GI tract also show similar features. Here we describe a case of autologous GVHD involving the skin of a patient who underwent ASCT for multiple myeloma. In this patient, the response to a total prednisone dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day was unsatisfactory, and the patient required more intensive and prolonged immunosuppressive therapy with slow tapering.Immune Network 06/2013; 13(3):107-10. DOI:10.4110/in.2013.13.3.107