Bile duct apoptosis and cholestasis resembling acute graft-versus-host disease after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the liver is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. This report describes hepatic GVHD following autologous transplantation.
We reviewed 116 consecutive autologous transplant recipients. A diagnosis of GVHD was based on histology (segmental to subtotal destruction of bile ductal epithelial cells with apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltrates), clinical criteria (elevated serum alkaline phosphatase), a response to immunosuppressive therapy, and finding no other cause for cholestatic liver disease.
Two patients developed cholestatic liver disease (alkaline phosphatase levels over five times the normal upper limit) and had liver biopsies showing apoptotic and dysmorphic ductular epithelial cells typical of GVHD. Three additional patients developed cholestasis and intestinal symptoms but had gastric biopsies only, showing apoptotic crypt epithelial cells and crypt cell drop-out typical of GVHD.
Two recipients of autologous hematopoietic cells developed histologic abnormalities of small bile ducts and cholestatic liver disease resembling GVHD of the liver after allogeneic transplant. The mechanisms of bile duct damage in this setting may involve immune dysregulation related to reconstitution of immunity with peripheral blood stem cells.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this review article is to discuss the role of secretin and its receptor in the regulation of the secretory activity of intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells (i.e., cholangiocytes). After a brief overview of cholangiocyte functions, we provide an historical background for the role of secretin and its receptor in the regulation of ductal secretion. We review the newly developed experimental in vivo and in vitro tools, which lead to understanding of the mechanisms of secretin regulation of cholangiocyte functions. After a description of the intracellular mechanisms by which secretin stimulates ductal secretion, we discuss the heterogeneous responses of different-sized intrahepatic bile ducts to gastrointestinal hormones. Furthermore, we outline the role of a number of cooperative factors (e.g., nerves, alkaline phosphatase, gastrointestinal hormones, neuropeptides, and bile acids) in the regulation of secretin-stimulated ductal secretion. Finally, we discuss other factors that may also play an important role in the regulation of secretin-stimulated ductal secretion.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10/2001; 281(3):G612-25. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have analyzed the long-term outcome and toxicities in 98 patients with high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who were treated with autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) and monitored for a median observation period of 11.67 years. Between 1983 and 1994, 98 patients in our institution in first or second and higher complete remission (CR) underwent total body irradiation and high-dose cyclophosphamide prior to ABMT purged with mafosfamide. Twenty-seven out of the 90 evaluable patients (30%) were alive and in continuous CR for a median of 11.67 years (range, 6.39-15.53) after ABMT and could be considered as 'cured'. Among the 90 patients, 39 were transplanted at first CR and had a significantly higher survival rate than those transplanted at > or = 2 CR. Younger patients (<40 years) had a better prognosis and patients with FAB M1-4 had a more favorable outcome than those with M5. Long-term complications included four patients with cardiac complications, two with renal insufficiency. Five developed HCV infections, four myelodysplastic syndrome. The incidence of cataract among the long-term survivors was 44.4%. Therefore, a significant number of adult patients with AML in first CR derived long-term benefit from ABMT, despite the risks of a few long-term complications and of MDS (4.4%).Bone Marrow Transplantation 07/2002; 30(1):15-22. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703586 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver injury is a frequent, serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) following myeloablative preparative regimens. We sought to determine the frequency and severity of hepatic injury after nonmyeloablative conditioning and its relationship to outcomes. One hundred ninety-three consecutive patients who received 2 Gy total body irradiation with or without fludarabine were evaluated for end points related to liver injury. Patients with diseases treatable by HCT who were ineligible for conventional myeloablative allogeneic HCT because of advanced age and/or comorbid conditions were included. Fifty-one patients (26%) developed hyperbilirubinemia of 68.4 microM (4 mg/dL) or greater, most commonly resulting from cholestasis due to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) or sepsis. Pretransplantation factors associated with liver dysfunction were a diagnosis of aggressive malignancy (hazard ratio [HR] 1.9; P =.04) and the inclusion of fludarabine in the conditioning regimen (HR 1.8; P =.07). Overall survival at 1 year was superior for patients who had maximal serum bilirubin levels in the normal (78%) or minimally elevated (22.23-66.69 microM [1.3-3.9 mg/dL]) ranges (69%) compared with those in the 68.4 to 117.99 microM (4-6.9 mg/dL; 20%), 119.7 to 169.29 microM (7.0-9.9 mg/dL; 17%), and 171.0 microM (10 mg/dL; 19%) or greater groups. In summary, significant jaundice occurred in 26% of patients and was predominantly due to cholestasis resulting from GVHD and/or sepsis. Aggressive malignancies (mainly advanced disease) and later development of jaundice after transplantation predicted inferior survival.Blood 02/2004; 103(1):78-84. DOI:10.1182/blood-2003-04-1311 · 10.43 Impact Factor