Non-invasive magnetoneurography for 3D-monitoring of human compound action current propagation in deep brachial plexus.
ABSTRACT Compound action current (CAC) propagation along nerve fibers running deep in the human brachial plexus was 3D-visualized based on non-invasive 49-channel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoneurography. Spatio-temporal mappings over the upper thoracal quadrant of magnetic fields (<100 fT) evoked upon alternating median and ulnar nerve stimulation in seven healthy volunteers showed consistently smoothly propagating dipolar patterns for both the CAC depolarization and repolarization phases. Multipolar current source reconstructions (i) distinguished spatially CAC propagation pathways along either median or ulnar plexus fibers, allowed (ii) to calculate local conduction velocities ( approximately 56 m/s) and (iii) even to estimate the CAC extension along the nerve fibers (depolarization phase: approximately 11 cm). Thus, for deep proximal nerve segments magnetoneurography can provide a detailed tracing of neural activity which is a prerequisite to localize non-invasively focal nerve malfunctions.
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates dynamic source imaging of the spinal cord electrophysiological activity from its evoked magnetic field by applying the spatial filter version of standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Our computer simulation shows that the sLORETA-based spatial filter can reconstruct the four current sources typically associated with the elicitation of the spinal cord evoked magnetic field (SCEF). The results from animal experiments show that significant changes in the latency and intensity of the reconstructed volume current arise near the location of the artificial incomplete conduction block. The results from the human SCEF show that the SCEF source imaging can visualize the dynamics of the volume currents and other nerve electrical activity propagating along the human spinal cord. These experimental results demonstrate the potential of SCEF source imaging as a future clinical tool for diagnosing cervical spinal cord disorders.IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 10/2009; 56(10):2452-60. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 75-ch SQUID biomagnetometer system for the measurement of the cervical spinal cord evoked magnetic field (SCEF) was developed for the purpose of the noninvasive functional diagnosis of the spinal cord. The sensor array has 25 SQUID vector sensors arranged along the cylindrical surface to fit to the shape of the subject's neck. The magnetic fields, not only in the direction radial to the subject's body surface but also in the tangential direction, are observed in the area of 80 mm times 90 mm at one time. The dewar has a unique shape with a cylindrical main body and a protrusion from its side surface. The sensor array is installed in the protruded part. This design is optimized to detect magnetic signals at the back of the neck of the subject sitting in a reclining position. We applied the developed SQUID system to the cervical SCEF measurement of normal subjects who were given electric pulse stimulation to their median nerves at the wrists. The evoked magnetic signals were successfully detected at the cervixes of all subjects. A characteristic pattern of transition of the SCEF distribution was observed as a reproducible result and the signal components propagating along the spinal cord were found in the time varying SCEF distribution. We expect that the investigation of the propagating signal components would help to establish a noninvasive functional diagnosis of the spinal cord.IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 01/2008; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported the usefulness of neuromagnetic recordings for the diagnosis of disorders in peripheral nerves or the spinal cord. However, there have been no reports on incomplete conduction block of the spinal cord, which is clinically common in conditions such as cervical myelopathy. Here, we estimated the usefulness of measuring spinal cord evoked magnetic fields for evaluating incomplete conduction block. Incomplete conduction block models of the spinal cord of the rabbit were established using a Fogarty balloon catheter that was inserted into the epidural space of the cervical spine. Electrical stimuli were applied to the lower thoracic spinal cord with an epidural catheter electrode. Spinal cord evoked potentials were recorded using epidural electrodes. Spinal cord evoked magnetic fields were recorded over the skin surface of the neck using a biomagnetometer. The decrease in the conduction velocity and amplitude at the compression site could be detected by spinal cord evoked potentials from the epidural space, confirming the spinal cord lesion. The waveforms of the magnetic fields showed a biphasic configuration. The distribution of magnetic fields showed a characteristic quadrupolar pattern propagating from caudal to cranial. After compression, the amplitude and the conduction velocity of the magnetic fields decreased, and the distribution of magnetic fields were attenuated and decelerated near the compression site especially in the trailing magnetic fields. Diagnosis of the incomplete conduction block was thus possible. We report the first measurement of the spinal cord evoked magnetic field in the intact spinal cord from the skin surface and that it can be applied to incomplete conduction block of the injured spinal cord. The use of a biomagnetometer is promising as a less-invasive method for clinically evaluating spinal cord function.Journal of Orthopaedic Science 05/2010; 15(3):371-80. · 0.96 Impact Factor