Anticonvulsant prophylaxis and timing of seizures after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT There is no evidence that seizure prophylaxis is indicated after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study examines prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) prescription and the occurrence of seizures within a single university-affiliated institution.
The authors reviewed 95 SAH patient charts using standardized forms. Variables included prophylaxis duration, seizure incidence and timing, CT findings, AED adverse events, and 1-year patient follow-up.
Prehospital seizures occurred in 17.9% (17/95) of patients; another 7.4% (7/95) had a questionable prehospital seizure. In-hospital seizures occurred in 4.1% (4/95) of patients, a mean of 14.5 +/- 13.7 days from ictus; three of these four patients were receiving an AED at the time of seizure. Inpatient AED were prescribed to 99% of the cohort for a median of 12 (range 1 to 68) days. Approximately 8% of the cohort had posthospital discharge seizures; this included the patients who had prehospital or in-hospital seizures, 50% of whom were receiving AED therapy at the time of the seizure. Adverse effects occurred in 4. 1%; none were serious. The thickness of cisternal clot was associated with having a seizure; no other clinical predictors were identified. Having a seizure at any time did not adversely affect outcome.
In this SAH population, the majority of seizures happened before medical presentation. In-hospital seizures were rare and occurred more than 7 days postictus for patients receiving AED prophylaxis. The vast majority of putative clinical predictors did not help predict the occurrence of seizures; only the thickness of the cisternal clot was of value in predicting seizures. Patient selection for and the efficacy and timing of AED prophylaxis after SAH deserve prospective evaluation.
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ABSTRACT: Seizures represent stereotypic electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral paroxysms as a consequence of electrical neurologic derangement. Seizures are usually described as focal or generalized motor convulsions; however, nonconvulsive seizures that occur in the absence of motor activity may escape clinical detection. Because of the admission diagnoses and dramatic physiologic and metabolic derangements common to critically ill patients, the entire spectrum of seizure disorders may be encountered in the ICU. Seizures in the ICU are attributable to primary neurologic pathology or secondary to critical illness and clinical management. For optimal treatment, early diagnosis of the seizure type and its cause is important to ensure appropriate therapy. Convulsive status epilepticus requires emergent treatment before irreversible brain injury and severe metabolic disturbances occur.Critical Care Clinics 02/2008; 24(1):115-47, ix. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seizures and seizure-like activity may occur in patients experiencing aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of these events with prophylactic antiepileptic drugs remains controversial. An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the incidence and treatment of seizures after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage from 1980 to October 2010. A total of 56 articles were included in this review. Seizures often occur at the time of initial presentation or aneurysmal rebleeding before aneurysm treatment. Seizures occur in about 2% of patients after invasive aneurysm treatment, with a higher incidence after surgical clipping compared with endovascular repair. Non-convulsive seizures should be considered in patients with poor neurological status or deterioration. Seizure prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is controversial, with limited data available for developing recommendations. While antiepileptic drug use has been linked to worse prognosis, studies have evaluated treatment with almost exclusively phenytoin. When prophylaxis is used, 3-day treatment seems to provide similar seizure prevention with better outcome compared with longer-term treatment. KeywordsAntiepileptic drug–Epileptiform–Non-convulsive–Phenytoin–Seizure–TonicNeurocritical Care 04/2012; 15(2):247-256. · 2.47 Impact Factor
Article: Critical care management of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society's Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an acute cerebrovascular event which can have devastating effects on the central nervous system as well as a profound impact on several other organs. SAH patients are routinely admitted to an intensive care unit and are cared for by a multidisciplinary team. A lack of high quality data has led to numerous approaches to management and limited guidance on choosing among them. Existing guidelines emphasize risk factors, prevention, natural history, and prevention of rebleeding, but provide limited discussion of the complex critical care issues involved in the care of SAH patients. The Neurocritical Care Society organized an international, multidisciplinary consensus conference on the critical care management of SAH to address this need. Experts from neurocritical care, neurosurgery, neurology, interventional neuroradiology, and neuroanesthesiology from Europe and North America were recruited based on their publications and expertise. A jury of four experienced neurointensivists was selected for their experience in clinical investigations and development of practice guidelines. Recommendations were developed based on literature review using the GRADE system, discussion integrating the literature with the collective experience of the participants and critical review by an impartial jury. Recommendations were developed using the GRADE system. Emphasis was placed on the principle that recommendations should be based not only on the quality of the data but also tradeoffs and translation into practice. Strong consideration was given to providing guidance and recommendations for all issues faced in the daily management of SAH patients, even in the absence of high quality data.Neurocritical Care 07/2011; 15(2):211-40. · 2.47 Impact Factor