Ocular measurements, including inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance, and palpebral fissure length are important in the evaluation of congenital deformities and posttraumatic telecanthus. In this research, 4446 normal Chinese children in Taiwan were enrolled in our study. The sample of 284 full term neonates, 2742 infants and children aged from 1 month to 3 years, and 1420 preschool children were measured for inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length. We calculated the mean value and standard deviation of the ocular measurements in normal Chinese newborns, infants and preschool children in Taiwan under 5 years. No significant sex differences were observed. Compared with previous studies, inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance and interpupillary distance in Chinese children in Taiwan were wider than those in Caucasian children, but the palpebral fissure length was not significantly different. We also found that inner canthal distance was wider than palpebral fissure length at the same age; therefore it was not correct to diagnose hypertelorism in Chinese children in Taiwan; as if an imaginary third eye could fit between the eyes. Thus, we suggest that measurements should be adjusted with normal standards specific for race. Consideration of the position of eyes is relevant for the diagnosis of a large number of syndromes.
"Given that these parameters vary with age, sex and ethnic background, several authors have undertaken to document normative values which may serve as references in the index population. Canthal distances have therefore been documented in Taiwanese (Wu et al., 2000), Chinese (Quant & Woo, 1992), Mexican and Japanese children (Laestadius et al.), Turkish (Evereklioglu et al., 2002) and Indian subjects (Zuhal, 1994). Comparative data has also been provided among Japanese and Australian aborigine populations (Kasai et al, 1993). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide a database of the canthal measurements of Chinese infants born in Hong Kong.
Prospective cross-sectional study.
A total of 2,371 healthy singleton, born consecutively at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Union Hospital from June 1998 to June 2000, were included in the study. The range of gestation was 33-42 weeks.
Canthal parameters were measured and included the outer canthal distance (OCD), intercanthal distance (ICD) and palpebral fissure length (PFL). The data generally show higher values for males in the parameters measured. The measurements were also compared with data published overseas. PFL and OCD were significantly larger in Hong Kong Chinese newborn babies, whereas ICD was smaller.
This study establishes the first set of gestational age-specific standard of such craniofacial parameters for Chinese newborn babies, potentially enabling early syndromal diagnosis. There are significant inter-racial differences in these canthal parameters.
Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research 03/2003; 6(1):48-53. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0280.2003.2c237.x · 1.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine the normal values of the intercanthal distance, biocular distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length and height for the Turkish population. These measurements were taken from 500 (272 females, 228 males) healthy young adults aged 18-25 years. The measurements were made with a millimetric compass. The mean values of intercanthal distance, biocular distance, interpupillary distance, right palpebral fissure length and palpebral fissure height were 30.7+/-3.0 mm, 95.9+/-6.0 mm, 63.9+/-3.6 mm, 32.6+/-2.4 mm and 10.3+/-1.6 mm respectively in males. In females the equivalent values were 30.0+/-2.6 mm, 92.0+/-5.4 mm, 60.8+/-3.2 mm, 31.0+/-2.4 mm and 10.4+/-1.5 mm respectively.
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