Brefeldin A affects growth, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, tubular vacuole system, and secretory pathway in Pisolithus tinctorius.
ABSTRACT Brefeldin A (BFA) reduced radial growth in Pisolithus tinctorius at a concentration as low as 2 microM. Use of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Tracker dye, unconjugated BFA, and fluorescent BFA (BODIPY-BFA) allowed comparison of the effects of BFA on the endomembrane system of P. tinctorius at the light and electron microscope levels. Both ER-Tracker dye and BODIPY-BFA have been shown previously to label the ER. Unconjugated BFA and BODIPY-BFA modified the ER network and disrupted the tubular vacuole system in the tip region. The ultrastructure in freeze-substituted hyphae showed that BFA treatment resulted in (i) disruption of the Spitzenkörper, (ii) reduction in number of apical vesicles, (iii) redistribution and mild dilation of ER, and (iv) persistence and increased size and complexity of Golgi bodies. The effects of BFA on the ER were only partially reversible in the time period examined. We conclude that in P. tinctorius, BFA as the free metabolite or BODIPY-BFA affects the tubular vacuole system as well as anterograde membrane flow between the ER and the Golgi bodies and post-Golgi transport.
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ABSTRACT: The preparatory techniques of freeze substitution for electron microscopy are given in detail. Included is a simple, reliable method for the selection of individual freeze-substituted cells from flat embedments via light microscopy for subsequent electron microscope analysis. These mthods are intended for studying cells in monolayer cultures, tissues, suspensions of cells, or cell fractions and are widely applicable for cell biologists in any field. An historical background and review of the relevant literature is included so that the reader will be fully prepared to use of modify the techniques and to troubleshoot results as required. All materials that are needed are thoroughly discussed so that any laboratory can adopt freeze substitution as a routine procedure.Experimental Mycology. 01/1987;
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ABSTRACT: Brefeldin A (BFA) blocks secretion in mammalian cells and causes the redistribution of Golgi resident membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (Klausner, R. D., Donaldson, J. G., and Lippincott-Schwartz, J. (1992) J. Cell Biol. 116, 1071-1080). The target(s) of BFA and its mechanism of action remain unknown. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an ideal organism in which to identify the BFA targets, since many molecules essential for vesicular traffic have been already identified taking advantage of the powerful genetics of this system. Unfortunately, wild type S. cerevisiae strains are largely insensitive to BFA (Hayashi, T., Takatsuki, A., and Tamura, G. (1982) Agric. Biol. Chem. 46, 2241-2248). Here we demonstrate that an erg6 mutant (Gaber, R., Copple, D., Kennedy, B., Vidal, M., and Bard, M. (1989) Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 3447-3456) defective in the biosynthesis of ergosterol is sensitive to BFA. Treatment of erg6 cells with BFA results in an arrest in growth and causes a block in secretion similar to that seen in mammalian cells treated with BFA. Our data suggest that the changes in the erg6 strain allows BFA entry and that this strain can be used to examine the molecular mechanism of BFA action.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1993; 268(5):3040-3. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- The Journal of Cell Biology 05/1963; 17:208-12. · 10.82 Impact Factor