Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: Effects of diet and physical activity

University of Virginia Health Sciences Center Charlottesville, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 09/2000; 72(2 Suppl):521S-8S.
Source: PubMed


The longitudinal growth of an individual child is a dynamic statement of the general health of that child. Measurements should be performed often and accurately to detect alterations from physiologic growth. Although any single point on the growth chart is not very informative, when several growth points are plotted over time, it should become apparent whether that individual's growth is average, a variant of the norm, or pathologic. Somatic growth and maturation are influenced by several factors that act independently or in concert to modify an individual's genetic growth potential. Linear growth within the first 2 y of life generally decelerates but then remains relatively constant throughout childhood until the onset of the pubertal growth spurt. Because of the wide variation among individuals in the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, there is a wide range of physiologic variations in normal growth. Nutritional status and heavy exercise training are only 2 of the major influences on the linear growth of children. In the United States, nutritional deficits result from self-induced restriction of energy intake. That single factor, added to the marked energy expenditure of training and competition for some sports, and in concert with the self-selection of certain body types, makes it difficult to identify the individual factors responsible for the slow linear growth of some adolescent athletes, for example, those who partake in gymnastics, dance, or wrestling.

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Available from: Alan D Rogol, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "The influence of the Growth Hormone (GH) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) during the pre-pubertal period was reported by Carabulea et al. (1980). During pubertal development , interactions between GH, sex steroid hormones (oestrogens and androgens) and production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) lead to changes in body composition and shape, including alterations in the relative proportions of water, muscle, fat and bone (Rogol et al., 2000). Genderrelated changes in muscle mass have been largely attributed to hormonal influences (Preece et al., 1984). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The assessment of normal values of muscle strength can be determined for the health outcome of adolescents, especially those who are living in a developing country. Aims: The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between anthropometric variables and vertical jumping performances. The jump height and the average of power were measured to establish reference values of vertical jumping parameters in Tunisian healthy adolescents aged 13-19 in both sexes. Subjects and methods: Five hundred and twenty-five school adolescents (242 males and 283 females) were randomly selected to participate in this study. Maximum height and average of power reached in countermovement jump and squat jump were provided by an Optojump device. Full and stepwise regression models were used to identify which anthropometric parameters significantly contributed to performance variables. Results: All anthropometric parameters increased with age. Reference values and multiple prediction equations of vertical jump parameters were set based on a large sample of healthy Tunisian adolescents. The multiple regressions showed that age, mass, sitting height, waist size, fat-free mass and leg muscle volume for boys and mass for girls were the best predictors of jumping performances. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for jumping performances in Tunisian healthy adolescents aged 13-19 in both sexes. The percentiles values are calculated to estimate the levels of adolescents with high or low jumping performances.
    Annals of Human Biology 06/2014; 42(2):1-9. DOI:10.3109/03014460.2014.926989 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    • "The mechanism for the increased GV in childhood obesity is unknown (35). Some reports suggest that nutrition (36), serum concentrations of growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) (37), leptin (38), and insulin (39) could be involved in this phenomenon. Childhood obesity is characterized by normal or accelerated growth in spite of abnormalities of the GH/IGF-I axis, which are marked by reduced GH secretion with normal IGF-I levels compared to normal-weight peers (32). "
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The hypothesis that obese children are overdiagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has not been adequately investigated in the context of adiposity-related differences in auxology. Aim: To investigate the differences in auxological parameters between short, prepubertal, obese children and normal-weight peers who underwent growth hormone stimulation testing (GHST).Hypothesis: Overweight/obese children with GHD (peak GHSubjects and Methods: A retrospective review of anthropometric and provocative GHST data of 67 prepubertal, GH-naïve children of age 10.21± 2.56 years (male n=45, age 10.8±2.60 years; female n=22, age 8.94±2.10). Inclusion criteria: GHST using arginine and clonidine. Exclusion criteria: hypopituitarism, abnormal pituitary MRI scan, syndromic obesity or syndromic short stature. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.Results: The overweight/obese children with peak GH of After adjusting for covariates, the overweight/obese children (BMI≥85th percentile) were >7 times more likely than normal-weight subjects (BMIThere was a significant inverse relationships between BMI SDS and the natural log (ln) of peak GH (β=-0.40, r2=0.26, p=0.001), but not for BMI SDS vs. GV SDS, ln peak GH vs.BA, or ln peak GH vs. GV SDS. Conclusion: Subnormal peak GH levels in obese prepubertal children are not associated with unique pre-GHST auxological characteristics.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 03/2014; 5:35. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2014.00035
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    • "At the skeletal (biological) age of 13 years there is onset of puberty among boys, but the girls experience it 2 years earlier, i.e. at 11 years [8]. Physical growth is defined by the interactive phenomena of cellular, biological, biochemical and morphological changes via a pre established genetic pathway, which is also influenced by the environment [9] [10]. Here we are concerned about the pubertal growth or biological maturity, in the context of physical fitness, because biological maturity is a determining and prominent factor of physiological responses to physical activity and exercises. "
    01/2014; 2(5A):34-39. DOI:10.12691/ajssm-2-5A-8
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