"On the one hand, FNH might occur as a consequence of adenoma/adenomatosis; on the other hand, vascular abnormalities (congenital or acquired, and which are the key factor for the formation of FNH [11,13,14]), could favor the development of adenomas/adenomatosis (Fig. 8). The risk link to estrogen was thought to decrease with the use of the third generation of OC (lesser estrogens). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We report our experience of the simultaneous occurrence of adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Liver cell adenoma together with FNH was found in five out of 30 cases of "multiple benign hepatocytic nodules" collected in our files of the Department of Pathology of the University Hospital of Bordeaux, during the last 12 years. All five cases were women on oral contraceptives. In all cases, the reason for surgery was the discovery, by imaging techniques, of an adenoma (4 cases) or of an unidentified benign tumor, possibly an adenoma.
Four cases of FNH were discovered by imaging techniques, prior to surgery. Additional small nodules were diagnosed either during surgery or during the slicing of the specimen in 3 cases. Adenoma and the FNH cases identified by imaging techniques were confirmed as such by light microscopy. Some small nodules could not be categorized with certainty because they contained biliary structures without ductular reaction. In one case, the non-nodular liver was abnormal around the area in which there were multiple nodules: there was approximation of portal tracts with portal and hepatic venous thromboses, and portal tract remnants with arteries surrounded with a rim of fibrosis. In two cases, some large hepatic veins had thickened walls.
The association of FNH and adenoma could be coincidental or secondary to shared causal mechanisms: a) systemic and local angiogenic abnormalities induced by oral contraceptives; b) tumor-induced growth factors; c) thrombosis and local arterio-venous shunting. A better recognition of the association of adenoma and FNH, particularly in the context of multiple nodules, could be useful in clinical practice.
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