Lesions of the dorsal vagal complex abolish increases in meal size induced by NMDA receptor blockade.
ABSTRACT Rats increase meal size and duration after intraperitoneal injection of MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. This effect depends upon intact vagal fibers, since the antagonist does not increase intake when visceral afferent and efferent pathways have been interrupted by bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. NMDA receptors have been demonstrated on vagal afferent fibers and on second-order neurons in the medial subnucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the area postrema (AP), and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. To determine whether neurons in these structures are crucial for NMDA receptor effects on feeding, we examined the effect of MK-801 on intake of 15% sucrose in rats with aspiration lesions of the AP and adjacent NTS. MK-801 (100 microg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased sucrose intake in these lesioned rats compared to sham-lesioned rats (32.3+/-0.1 ml versus 23.3+/-0.1 ml, P<0.001). However, when the AP/NTS aspiration lesions were combined with bilateral electrolytic destruction of the medial NTS and the DMV, lesioned rats consumed nearly the same amount of sucrose after either saline or MK-801 (25.9+/-2.4 ml versus 24.3+/-3. 0 ml; P=0.687). By contrast, sham-lesioned controls ingested significantly more sucrose following MK-801 compared to saline (19. 8+/-1.0 ml versus 13.1+/-0.8 ml, P<0.001). These results suggest that an intact caudomedial NTS and/or DMV are necessary for increases in intake induced by NMDA receptor blockade. While the AP might participate in MK-801-induced enhancement of intake, it is not essential for this effect.
Article: The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 alters lipoprivic eating elicited by 2-mercaptoacetate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Eating behavior is controlled, at least in part, by levels of circulating metabolic fuels such as glucose and free fatty acids, and drugs that interfere with the availability of these fuels can elicit eating. One such drug is 2-mercaptoacetate (2MA), an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. Evidence also suggests that NMDA receptors may mediate some aspects of normal eating and satiety. The present study was conducted in order to determine whether NMDA receptors may play a role in feeding elicited by 2MA. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of either saline, 2MA, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or a combined injection of 2MA and MK-801, and subsequent intake of a fat-enriched, mash diet was measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h post-injection. Results showed that cumulative food intake was significantly increased by 2MA alone, as compared to saline controls, with most of the 2MA-elicited eating occurring during the first hour post-injection. While MK-801 alone did not alter food intake, it did have a biphasic effect on feeding elicited by 2MA. MK-801 initially suppressed and later enhanced eating elicited by 2MA. Although it is unclear whether MK-801 is acting centrally, peripherally or both to alter 2MA-induced eating, these results implicate NMDA receptors and the neurotransmitter glutamate in the regulation of lipid-associated eating and satiety.Physiology & Behavior 02/2005; 83(5):787-91. · 2.87 Impact Factor
Article: Reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin requires activation of hindbrain NMDA-type glutamate receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal injection of CCK reduces food intake and triggers a behavioral pattern similar to natural satiation. Reduction of food intake by CCK is mediated by vagal afferents that innervate the stomach and small intestine. These afferents synapse in the hindbrain nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) where gastrointestinal satiation signals are processed. Previously, we demonstrated that intraperitoneal (IP) administration of either competitive or noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists attenuates reduction of food intake by CCK. However, because vagal afferents themselves express NMDA receptors at both central and peripheral endings, our results did not speak to the question of whether NMDA receptors in the brain play an essential role in reduction of feeding by CCK. We hypothesized that activation of NMDA receptors in the NTS is necessary for reduction of food intake by CCK. To test this hypothesis, we measured food intake following IP CCK, subsequent to NMDA receptor antagonist injections into the fourth ventricle, directly into the NTS or subcutaneously. We found that either fourth-ventricle or NTS injection of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was sufficient to inhibit CCK-induced reduction of feeding, while the same antagonist doses injected subcutaneously did not. Similarly fourth ventricle injection of d-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphoric acid (d-CPPene), a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, also blocked reduction of food intake following IP CCK. Finally, d-CPPene injected into the fourth ventricle attenuated CCK-induced expression of nuclear c-Fos immunoreactivity in the dorsal vagal complex. We conclude that activation of NMDA receptors in the hindbrain is necessary for the reduction of food intake by CCK. Hindbrain NMDA receptors could comprise a critical avenue for control and modulation of satiation signals to influence food intake and energy balance.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 05/2011; 301(2):R448-55. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anorexia is one of the most common symptoms associated with illness and constitutes an adaptive strategy in fighting acute infectious diseases. However, prolonged reduction in food intake and an increase in metabolic rate, as seen in the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, lead to depletion of body fat and protein reserves, thus worsening the organism's condition. Because the central nervous system controls many aspects of food intake, soluble factors known as cytokines that are secreted by immune cells might act on the brain to induce anorexia during disease. This review focuses on the communication pathways from the immune system to the brain that might mediate anorexia during disease. The vagus nerve is a rapid route of communication from the immune system to the brain, as subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates the decrease in food-motivated behavior and c-Fos expression in the central nervous system in response to peripheral administration of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta, or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. At later time points after peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration, interleukin-1 itself acts in the brain to mediate anorexia and is found in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. The mechanisms by which interleukin-1beta gains access to the brain and the potential role of neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the arcuate hypothalamus in mediating anorexia during disease are discussed.Nutrition 17(7-8):664-8. · 3.03 Impact Factor