Identification of GRIM-19, a novel cell death-regulatory gene induced by the interferon-beta and retinoic acid combination, using a genetic approach.
ABSTRACT We show here that the combination of interferon-beta (IFN-beta) and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induces the death of tumor cells. To understand the molecular basis for synergistic growth-suppressive action and to identify the gene products that participate in this process, we have employed an antisense knock-out technique. This approach permits the isolation of cell death-associated genes based on their selective inactivation by overexpression of antisense cDNAs. Because the antisense mRNA inactivates gene expression of death-specific genes, transfected cells survive in the presence death inducers. Several Genes associated with Retinoid-IFN-induced Mortality (GRIM) were identified using this approach. Here we report the isolation of a novel GRIM gene, GRIM-19. This 552-base pair cDNA encodes a 16-kDa protein. Antisense expression of GRIM-19 confers a strong resistance against IFN/RA-induced death by reducing the intracellular levels of GRIM-19 protein. Overexpression of GRIM-19 enhances cell death in response to IFN/RA. GRIM-19 is primarily a nuclear protein whose expression is induced by the IFN/RA combination. Together, our studies identify a novel cell death-regulatory molecule.
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ABSTRACT: One of the hallmarks of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection is progressive depletion of the infected and bystander CD4+ T-cells by apoptosis. Different mitochondrial proteins have been implicated in this apoptotic process; however, the role of different subunits of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in apoptosis is not clearly understood. Some of the OXPHOS complex subunits seem to perform other functions in addition to their primary role in energy generating process. GRIM-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced-mortality-19), a subunit of mitochondrial complex-I was previously implicated in Interferon-β and retionoic acid induced apoptosis in many tumor cells. In this study we report, using differential gene expression analysis, that GRIM-19 is up-regulated in HIV-1 infected apoptotic T-cells. A temporal up regulation of this subunit was observed in different HIV-1 infected T-cell lines and human PBMC and the extent of increase correlated to increasing apoptosis and virus production. Moreover, silencing GRIM-19 in HIV-1 infected cells reduced apoptosis, indicating its involvement in HIV-1 induced T-cell death.Apoptosis 12/2010; 15(12):1453-60. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies showed a down-regulation of GRIM-19 in primary human cervical cancers, and restoration of GRIM-19 induced tumor regression. The induction of tumor suppressor protein p53 ubiquitination and degradation by E6 oncoportein of high risk-HPV through forming a stable complex with E6AP is considered as a critical mechanism for cervical tumor development. The aims of this study were to determine the potential role of GRIM-19 in rescuing p53 protein and inducing cervical cancer cell apoptosis. The protein levels of GRIM-19 and p53 were detected in normal cervical tissues from 45 patients who underwent hysterectomy for reasons other than neoplasias of either the cervix or endometrium, and cervical cancer tissues from 60 patients with non-metastatic squamous epithelial carcinomas. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay were performed to examine the interaction of GRIM-19 with 18E6 and E6AP in vivo and in vitro respectively. The competition of 18E6 with E6AP in binding GRIM-19 by performing competition pull-down assays was designed to examine the disruption of E6/E6AP complex by GRIM-19. The augment of E6AP ubiquitination by GRIM-19 was detected in vivo and in vitro ubiquitination assay. The effects of GRIM-19-dependent p53 accumulation on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis were explored by MTT, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy respectively. The tumor suppression was detected by xenograft mouse model. The levels of GRIM-19 and p53 were concurrently down regulated in cervical cancers. The restoration of GRIM-19 can induce ubiquitination and degradation of E6AP, and disrupt the E6/E6AP complex through the interaction of N-terminus of GRIM-19 with both E6 and E6AP, which protected p53 from degradation and promoted cell apoptosis. Tumor xenograft studies also revealed the suppression of p53 degradation in presence of GRIM-19. These data suggest that GRIM-19 can block E6/E6AP complex; and synergistically suppress cervical tumor growth with p53.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e22065. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: GRIM-1, a novel growth suppressor, inhibits rRNA maturation by suppressing small nucleolar RNAs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have recently isolated novel IFN-inducible gene, Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality-1 (GRIM-1), using a genetic technique. Moderate ectopic expression of GRIM-1 caused growth inhibition and sensitized cells to retinoic acid (RA)/IFN-induced cell death while high expression caused apoptosis. GRIM-1 depletion, using RNAi, conferred a growth advantage. Three protein isoforms (1α, 1β and 1γ) with identical C-termini are produced from GRIM-1 mRNA. We show that GRIM-1 isoforms interact with NAF1 and DKC1, two essential proteins required for box H/ACA sno/sca RNP biogenesis and suppresses box H/ACA RNA levels in mammalian cells by delocalizing NAF1. Suppression of these small RNAs manifests as inefficient rRNA maturation and growth suppression. Interestingly, yeast Shq1p also caused growth suppression in mammalian cells. Consistent with its growth-suppressive property, GRIM-1 expression is lost in a number of human primary prostate tumors. Our observations support a recent study that GRIM-1 might act as a co-tumor suppressor in the prostate.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24082. · 4.09 Impact Factor