Acute elevation of blood lead levels within hours of ingestion of large quantities of lead shot.

Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque 87131, USA.
Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology 02/2000; 38(4):435-40. DOI: 10.1081/CLT-100100954
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ingestion of elemental lead foreign bodies is felt to have a low risk of clinically significant lead absorption unless gastrointestinal pathology and/or prolonged transit time are present. We present a case of ingestion of a large quantity of small diameter lead shot accompanied by rapid elevation of blood lead levels.
A 5 1/2-year-old previously healthy girl was found eating the pellets from an ankle weight. She vomited and complained of abdominal pain. In the emergency department, she had no complaints and normal vital signs. An abdominal X-ray showed thousands of small, round, metallic density objects in the stomach. Her white blood cell count was 14,700/mm3, and the hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, zinc protoporphyrin, biochemistry panel 21, and urinalysis were normal. She had no prior lead level for comparison. Whole-bowel irrigation was begun and she passed over 11 stools with pellets as well as other foreign bodies (erasers, bead, etc.) in the first 24 hours. Pellets were still seen on X-ray the following day so she received a high-fiber diet and bisacodyl tablets 10 mg/d. On hospital day 2, her admission blood lead (drawn 13 hours after ingestion) was reported as 57 microg/dL (2.7 microm/L) and chelation was begun with oral 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid 10 mg/kg 3x/d for 5 days, then 2x/d for 14 days. Her peak measured lead level was 79 microg/dL approximately 36 hours after ingestion. She excreted 2,273 microg lead in the urine during her first 24 hours of chelation. Her blood lead dropped to 14.3 microg/dL by the end of chelation. She did not develop any apparent signs of lead poisoning.
Acute elevations of blood lead concentrations may occur rapidly after ingestion of multiple small elemental lead objects.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Paediatric GI emergencies constitute a wide range of gut pathologies ranging from those that are common, easily diagnosed and treated to conditions that are rarer, often more severe and challenging to manage. Among a myriad of ordinary clinical symptoms and signs physicians have to identify the child with a serious, life-threatening pathology and initiate the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic pathway. The aim of the review is to present and discuss a selection of key paediatric GI emergencies that provide challenges in diagnosis and treatment. These conditions are classified by their presentation or pathogenesis and include inflammatory conditions, those presenting with GI obstruction or haemorrhage and the ingestion of foreign bodies or caustic substances. The most recent advances regarding the management of these entities are discussed along with key areas of clinical practice and future research.
    Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 10/2013; 27(5):799-817. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
    Environmental Toxicology 06/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Context. Lead toxicity from the ingestion of a lead foreign body has been described in several case reports. Management of ingested live ammunition presents its own challenges due to the risk of accidental discharge. A safe and effective method of retrieving a live cartridge must be considered. Case Details. We present two cases of lead toxicity due to intact firearm cartridge ingestion with the removal of the cartridges via endoscopy. The first case is of severe pediatric lead toxicity due to the ingestion of 30-mm rifle cartridges. The second case is an adult ingestion of .22 caliber cartridges resulting in mild lead toxicity. Discussion. These cases illustrate a diagnostic dilemma in both the diagnosis of lead toxicity and the removal of live ammunition from the stomach.
    Clinical Toxicology 05/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor