Identification of differentially expressed genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by means of the Atlas human cancer cDNA expression array.
ABSTRACT To investigate genes of critical areas, including cell cycle/growth control, apoptosis, oncogene/tumor suppressors and growth factor/cytokines, that are differentially expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The Human Cancer cDNA Atlas, which contains 588 genes relating to tumor biology, was used to screen normal nasopharyngeal tissue, nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression pattern of some genes identified by Atlas hybridization.
The differentially expressed cell cycle/growth control regulators in NPC showed a stronger tendency toward cell proliferation with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin D2 etc. The expression pattern of apoptosis-related genes demonstrated the up-regulation of both anti-apoptotic factors such as the BCL-2-related protein A1, TRAF3, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein A1 (IAPI) and apoptotic pathway elements such as Fas/Apo-1, Apo-2 ligand etc. Among oncogenes/tumor suppressors, MDM2, STAT1 and STAT2 were found to be up-regulated in NPC. The expression profile of growth factors/cytokines showed the up-regulation of many growth-enhancing factors such as EGR1, tumor-derived growth factor 1, platelet-derived growth factor A chain etc. as well as Th1-type cytokines e.g. interleukin-1beta and interferons. A smaller number of genes were down-regulated in nasopharyngeal cancer, such as those encoding ERK1, Raf, secreted apoptosis-related protein 1, CD27BP, transforming growth factor beta2, pre-B-cell-stimulating factor homologue etc.
The consistent tendency toward cell proliferation, the possibility of a stronger antiapoptotic force that operates on the normal apoptotic pathway, or the autocrine or paracrine growth factors may account for the development of NPC. Some genes are reported for the first time to have changed expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The simple, quick, and high-throughput method of profiling gene expression by cDNA array hybridization provides us with a quick overview of key factors that may be involved in NPC, and may identify genes suitable for further study of carcinogenesis mechanism or targets for possible molecular diagnosis or therapy.
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ABSTRACT: The cytoplasmic C-terminus of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is essential for B lymphocyte growth transformation and is now shown to interact with a novel human protein (LMP1-associated protein 1 [LAP1]). LAP1 is homologous to a murine protein, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), implicated in growth signaling from the p80 TNFR. A second novel protein (EBI6), induced by EBV infection, is the human homolog of a second murine TNFR-associated protein (TRAF1). LMP1 expression causes LAP1 and EBI6 to localize to LMP1 clusters in lymphoblast plasma membranes, and LMP1 coimmunoprecipitates with these proteins. LAP1 binds to the p80 TNFR, CD40, and the lymphotoxin-beta receptor, while EBI6 associates with the p80 TNFR. The interaction of LMP1 with these TNFR family-associated proteins is further evidence for their role in signaling and links LMP1-mediated transformation to signal transduction from the TNFR family.Cell 03/1995; 80(3):389-99. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome arm 3p has been commonly observed in carcinomas of various tissues, including those of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To determine the frequency and extent of allelic loss in NPC, we investigated 16 loci on chromosome bands 3p21-26 in 24 tumor tissues by microsatellite analysis. LOH on 3p21-26 was found in 16 of 24 (66.7%) tumors. The highest frequency of allelic loss was found in two adjacent loci, D3S1620 (11/22, 50%) and D3S1560 (9/18, 50%). Eight cases showed LOH in one contiguous region and 5 cases in more than one region. Samples 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 22 had a contiguous stretch of allelic loss between D3S1297 and D3S1597. The smallest common LOH/deletion region seems likely to lie between D3S1297 (3p26.3-26.2) and D3S1560 (3p25.3). The allelic loss map defined here will facilitate finer mapping of putative tumor suppressor gene loci and positional cloning of such genes, which may play a role in carcinogenesis of NPC.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 10/1998; 23(1):21-5. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified as key components of signaling pathways involved in mediating responses to IFNs. Previous studies showed that the Src oncoprotein constitutively activates one STAT family member, Stat3. In this study, we investigated STAT activation in a panel of rodent fibroblast cell lines stably transformed by diverse viral oncoproteins. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, we determined that Stat3 is activated within 15 min of shift from nonpermissive to permissive temperature for cell transformation. This finding indicates that v-Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for Stat3 activation and suggests that Stat3 is proximal to signaling initiated by Src. In addition, Stat3 activation is induced by another nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, v-Fps; by polyoma virus middle T antigen, which activates Src family kinases; and by v-Sis, which acts as a ligand for the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. In contrast SV40 large T antigen, which transforms cells through different mechanisms, and the v-Ras and v-Raf oncoproteins, which lie in signaling pathways downstream of tyrosine kinases, do not activate Stat3. We did not detect significant activation of Stat1, Stat5, or Stat6 in fibroblasts transformed by the viral oncoproteins investigated. Moreover, Stat3 is activated in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not heregulins in immortalized normal human breast epithelial cells. Because constitutive activation of c-Src and EGF receptor kinases is associated with the progression of breast cancer, we examined activation of STATs in human cell lines derived from breast carcinomas. We detected constitutive activation of Stat3 in five of nine breast carcinoma cell lines but not in normal breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, experiments with an EGF receptor-specific inhibitor indicated that the constitutive activation of Stat3 in these breast carcinoma cell lines is not necessarily dependent on signaling through the EGF receptor, although EGF stimulation further increases Stat3 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that selective activation of Stat3 is a common event during oncogenic transformation that directly or indirectly involves activation of specific tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.Cell growth & differentiation: the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 01/1998; 8(12):1267-76.