Identification of differentially expressed genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by means of the Atlas human cancer cDNA expression array.
ABSTRACT To investigate genes of critical areas, including cell cycle/growth control, apoptosis, oncogene/tumor suppressors and growth factor/cytokines, that are differentially expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The Human Cancer cDNA Atlas, which contains 588 genes relating to tumor biology, was used to screen normal nasopharyngeal tissue, nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). The reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression pattern of some genes identified by Atlas hybridization.
The differentially expressed cell cycle/growth control regulators in NPC showed a stronger tendency toward cell proliferation with the up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin D2 etc. The expression pattern of apoptosis-related genes demonstrated the up-regulation of both anti-apoptotic factors such as the BCL-2-related protein A1, TRAF3, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein A1 (IAPI) and apoptotic pathway elements such as Fas/Apo-1, Apo-2 ligand etc. Among oncogenes/tumor suppressors, MDM2, STAT1 and STAT2 were found to be up-regulated in NPC. The expression profile of growth factors/cytokines showed the up-regulation of many growth-enhancing factors such as EGR1, tumor-derived growth factor 1, platelet-derived growth factor A chain etc. as well as Th1-type cytokines e.g. interleukin-1beta and interferons. A smaller number of genes were down-regulated in nasopharyngeal cancer, such as those encoding ERK1, Raf, secreted apoptosis-related protein 1, CD27BP, transforming growth factor beta2, pre-B-cell-stimulating factor homologue etc.
The consistent tendency toward cell proliferation, the possibility of a stronger antiapoptotic force that operates on the normal apoptotic pathway, or the autocrine or paracrine growth factors may account for the development of NPC. Some genes are reported for the first time to have changed expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The simple, quick, and high-throughput method of profiling gene expression by cDNA array hybridization provides us with a quick overview of key factors that may be involved in NPC, and may identify genes suitable for further study of carcinogenesis mechanism or targets for possible molecular diagnosis or therapy.
Article: Chromosomal imbalances in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a meta-analysis of comparative genomic hybridization results.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly prevalent disease in Southeast Asia and its prevalence is clearly affected by genetic background. Various theories have been suggested for its high incidence in this geographical region but to these days no conclusive explanation has been identified. Chromosomal imbalances identifiable through comparative genomic hybridization may shed some light on common genetic alterations that may be of relevance to the onset and progression of NPC. Review of the literature, however, reveals contradictory results among reported findings possibly related to factors associated with patient selection, stage of disease, differences in methodological details etc. To increase the power of the analysis and attempt to identify commonalities among the reported findings, we performed a meta-analysis of results described in NPC tissues based on chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This meta-analysis revealed consistent patters in chromosomal abnormalities that appeared to cluster in specific "hot spots" along the genome following a stage-dependent progression.Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2006; 4:4. · 3.41 Impact Factor
Article: Integrated analysis of multiple gene expression profiling datasets revealed novel gene signatures and molecular markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify the novel gene signatures and molecular markers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by integrated bioinformatics analysis of multiple gene expression profiling datasets. Seven published gene expression profiling studies and one of our unpublished works were reanalyzed to identify the common significantly dysregulated (CSD) genes in NPC. Overrepresentation analysis of cytogenetic bands, Gene Ontology (GO) categories, pathways were used to explore CSD genes functionally associated with carcinogenesis. The protein expressions of selected CSD genes were examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, and the correlations of their expressions with clinical outcomes were evaluated. Using the criteria (genes reported deregulated in more than one study), a total of 962 genes were identified as the CSD genes in NPC. Four upregulated (BUB1B, CCND2, CENPF, and MAD2L1) and two downregulated (LTF and SLPI) genes were markedly reported in six studies. The enrichments of chromosome aberrations were 2q23, 2q31, 7p15, 12q15, 12q22, 18q11, and 18q12 in upregulated genes and 14q32 and 16q13 in downregulated genes. The activated GO categories and pathways related to proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and downregulated immune response had been functionally associated with NPC. SLPI significantly downregulated in nasopharyngeal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the high expression of BUB1B or CENPF was associated with poor overall survival of patients. It was first clearly identified the dysregulated expression of BUB1B and SLPI in NPC tissues. Further studies of the CSD genes as gene signatures and molecular markers of NPC might improve the understanding of the disease and identify new therapeutic targets.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 11/2011; 21(1):166-75. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental concepts behind the chip, the technology required for making and using these chips, and the multitude of statistical tools for analyzing the data have been extensively reviewed. For this reason, the focus of this review will be not on the technology itself but on the application of microarrays as a research tool and the future challenges of the field.Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2001; 109(9):881-91. · 7.04 Impact Factor